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20 general public, including those who do not speak the local lan- implemented, the concept of arranging the entire departures guage. Informational displays are often not interactive and the hall based on passenger check-in processes (i.e., boarding lack of real-time information can cause anxiety. Wayfinding pass only, boarding pass and baggage check, or full-service can also be difficult because of confusing indirect routes with check-in) is not currently being implemented. The following multiple decision points along the way. This confusion can be is a brief summary of the innovations that are described in exacerbated by the conflicting priorities of passenger move- detail in Chapter 4: ments and the goals of retail establishments. Leveraging CUSS kiosks to differentiate passenger- processing activities according to individual passenger Vehicular Movement/Pickup/Drop-Off requirements; The constant movement of POVs and CVs on the airport Developing passenger-processing facilities that accommo- terminal roadway system is another contributor to passenger date a variety of functions at locations other than the con- stress. Accommodating all of these mode types within the ventional terminal building; limited roadway and curbside capacity that is typically avail- Providing the capability for passengers to tag their own able at airports can result in a number of issues. For example, check baggage using automated devices at a variety of vehicles typically cluster around desirable curbside locations, locations both inside and outside the terminal building; such as doorways and skycap areas, resulting in congestion hot Providing alternative means for dropping off passengers, spots. Curbside congestion increases the potential for queuing picking up passengers, and short-term parking for passen- that can extend onto the airport access roadway system and gers traveling in private vehicles; impede overall access to the airport. The double parking Implementing alternative methods of accommodating often associated with checking baggage at the curbside creates commercial vehicle operations in lieu of the conventional safety issues and exacerbates curbside congestion, which further curbside; reduces the capacity of the roadway system. On the arrivals Providing special facilities provisions for accommodat- level, a balanced level of enforcement must be achieved. Very ing the increasing number of elderly travelers, including high levels of enforcement, which keep the arrivals level road- baggage devices, vertical transportation systems, and way freely flowing, may contribute to secondary effects of seating; and increased recirculating traffic and increased staffing costs to Implementing techniques for enhancing the passenger's the airport operator. Other factors, such as short merging arrival experience, including meeters and greeters and the distances and vehicles backing up at the terminal entrances, interface with ground transportation. also reduce roadway capacity. Concepts Incorporating Safety and Security Innovations Passenger anxiety is increased by real and perceived safety One of the major goals of this research project was not concerns. These concerns can include the very real possibility only to identify innovations, but also to understand and of traffic accidents caused by roadway congestion and pedes- evaluate their potential effects on airport terminal land- trian injuries related to at-grade roadway crossings, typically side facility planning and design. Therefore, several new between the garage and the terminal building. Passengers landside (see Chapter 5) and terminal (see Chapter 6) may also be concerned about personal safety in parking concepts that incorporate one or more innovations were garages and at transit stations and even at the curbside, espe- developed. cially late at night. The concentration of unscreened check The landside concepts are based on the passenger processes bags in the departures hall, at curbside check-in, or at a remote described earlier and include activities from the beginning of check-in location may also be perceived as a safety threat. the passenger's journey to the point where the passenger enters the terminal building and the reverse. These concepts encompass POV and CV traffic, remote baggage check, park- Innovations Identified ing, passenger drop-off and pickup, and the potential inte- During the research phase, several innovations were iden- gration of regional transit systems and rental car facilities. tified to improve the passenger's airport experience. These The process of picking up and dropping off passengers was innovations included procedural methods as well as physical examined through innovative alternatives to the conventional devices. Some of the innovations are not, by themselves, curbside. The terminal concepts incorporate a number of dif- new, but the manner in which they have been combined ferent check-in arrangements and arrivals concepts, which may be. For example, while CUSS systems are currently being include an idealized arrangement of components related to