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3 CHAPTER 1 Background This chapter presents the objectives of this research project stimulate movement toward more forward-thinking practices on new concepts for airport terminal landside facilities and and policies. the need for such new concepts, lists the chapters included in the report, presents definitions of the terminology used to Need for Innovation ensure a consistent understanding, and discusses the assump- tions underlying the development and refinement of the in- In May 2007, Airports Council InternationalNorth America novative concepts for airport terminal landside facilities. (ACI-NA) estimated that airport operators will spend approx- The intended audience includes airport management; other imately $17.5 billion per year, or $87.4 billion total, in 2007 airport stakeholders, such as airlines and ground transporta- through 2011 just to keep up with the FAA's forecast of airline tion operators; and airport terminal and landside facility traffic growth (1). Large- and medium-hub airports are ex- planning and design consultants. pected to account for approximately 73% of the total planned investments, with terminal and landside projects represent- ing 65.2% and 71.1%, respectively, of the development costs Research Objectives at large- and medium-hub airports (1). With construction The objectives of this research project were to identify in- costs increasing faster than inflation (1), the need to identify novations and develop innovative terminal landside facility cost-effective solutions to improving the level of service that concepts that can be implemented at airports of various passengers experience at airport terminal landside facilities is sizes to improve the experience of passengers as they travel more crucial than ever. between the airport entrance or remote airport facility and the secure portions of the passenger terminal. The innovations Report Organization were then incorporated into landside and terminal facility concepts intended to stimulate innovative design solutions This report is organized into the following chapters: to address the issues commonly faced by passengers on the terminal landside. Particular focus was given to the needs of the Chapter 1: Background aging population. Chapter 2: Research Findings The identified innovations and the concepts incorporating Chapter 3: Approach to Developing New Concepts the innovations developed as part of this research effort focus Chapter 4: Innovations on large- and medium-hub airports (at least 1.00% and be- Chapter 5: Landside Concepts tween 0.25% and 0.99% of total U.S. passenger boardings, Chapter 6: Terminal Concepts respectively), as designated by the FAA, with the intent that Chapter 7: Conclusions they could be implemented within the next 5 to 10 years. The innovations rely primarily on proven technologies, Chapter 1 establishes the objectives of the research effort and common processes, and current regulatory conditions in effect the need for innovation, presents the basic definitions of throughout the world, but may not be widely implemented terms used throughout this document, and outlines the key within the United States or may even be currently prohibited assumptions used to develop the innovative concepts and the by U.S. regulations. The intent of examining opportunities intended goals for those concepts. The definitions of terms not currently implemented within the United States is to are provided to minimize confusion regarding the meaning