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31 Operations Perspective Challenges to Implementation Providing passengers the opportunity to check baggage The primary challenges to implementing the bag-check before parking has the potential to reduce curbside roadway plaza would be the cost and operational difficulties of trans- congestion associated with passenger drop-off and curbside porting baggage from the plaza to the baggage-processing area. check-in. Patrons who would typically drop off other members In addition, passengers must be able to tag their own check of their parties and their baggage at the curbside before baggage. Other challenges, such as the availability of land to parking could check their baggage at the bag-check plaza construct the facility and the potential impact on parking space and then proceed directly to parking, thereby reducing the supply, would also need to be considered. The success of such number of vehicles using the curbside roadway. This process facilities would likely relate to the ability to generate enough would enable the airport operator to decrease curbside volume to justify the capital and operational costs. roadway congestion and enforcement without adding phys- ical capacity. The bag-check plaza would also supplement the capacity of check-in facilities in the terminal by allow- Supplemental Curbsides ing passengers to bypass the ticket counter and proceed The curbside roadway accommodating POV and CV traf- directly to the SSCP. fic has historically been adjacent to the terminal building, The bag-check plaza could also increase the seating capac- and the manner in which POVs and CVs are separated varies ity and improve the loading efficiency of shuttle bus services from airport to airport. Curbsides are typically designed to from remote lots because passengers have already checked minimize walking distances by providing passengers prox- their baggage. These advantages may then lead to a reduction imity to the terminal building entrance associated with their in the number of shuttle buses in operation, which would, airline. However, increased vehicle demand and the passen- therefore, reduce operational costs and provide environmen- gers' desire to be dropped off directly in front of the door tal benefits. creates a high level of congestion along certain areas of the A bag-check plaza serving close-in parking lots would need curbside while leaving other areas underutilized. Moving a to be constructed in what is likely already a congested area. portion, or in the case of a new terminal, all of the curbside Regardless of whether the facility is close-in or remote, the re- functions into an adjacent parking structure or surface lot quired footprint may reduce the number of available parking would allow for the dispersion of vehicle demand along the spaces if it is constructed on an existing parking lot, which curbside frontage and would significantly increase curbside could have a negative impact on parking revenues. capacity. Depending on the location of the bag-check plaza, baggage Supplemental curbsides located near the terminal building would have to be transported to a baggage-screening area could be combined with pedestrian bridges to reduce or elim- either by truck or an automated conveyance system. The cost inate at-grade lane crossings and to improve pedestrian safety to convey bags from a remote location to the terminal area and roadway operations. One arrangement might consist of would likely be substantial. a supplemental curbside in the parking structure and another "traditional" curbside serving an adjacent terminal (see Fig- ure 4-9: "Terminal and Garage"). This arrangement would be Simulation Analysis more appropriate for an existing terminal layout where To estimate the required size of a bag-check plaza, a com- certain transportation modes are moved from the existing puter simulation analysis was conducted at a medium-hub curbside to the parking structure. For example, departing airport with a high percentage (77%) of POVs. The four- passengers could be dropped off in the parking structure and airline terminal at the selected airport accommodates approx- cross an elevated pedestrian bridge directly into the ticketing imately 1,200 peak hour enplaned passengers. Assuming that hall without having to cross any lanes of traffic. Another 60% of the passengers with check baggage use the bag-check alternative might relocate all curbside functions inside a plaza, a total of 12 self-service positions would be required to parking structure (see Figure 4-9: "Garage Only"). Because accommodate demand. If 40% of the passengers with check it is unlikely that existing roadway infrastructure adjacent to baggage use the bag-check plaza, eight self-service positions the terminal building would be abandoned, this layout would be required. In addition, an average of four or five spaces would best be designed as part of the construction of a new per check-in position should be provided for vehicle staging terminal. Transportation modes could be assigned to sepa- (i.e., parked or in queue). Inside the terminal departures hall, rate levels of the parking structure and could provide direct the maximum passenger queues would be reduced by 50% access to and from the terminal building. A courtyard or or more. Detailed results of this analysis are included in the other "outdoor space" could then be provided between the appendix. parking structure and the terminal building, similar to the

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32 shuttles, rental car shuttles, and taxicabs. An elevated bridge over the terminal curbside roadway provides a grade-separated pedestrian path between the terminal building and the sup- plemental curbside. Terminal 2 at Munich Airport has supplemental curbsides (see Figure 2-2) in the form of forecourts on each side of the terminal building, with POVs on one side of the terminal and CVs on the other. Each forecourt has two levels: the upper level for departures and the lower level for arrivals. Assumptions/Prerequisites A supplemental curbside could be implemented either as part of an existing parking structure modified to provide a traditional curbside or as part of a new terminal facility. In either scenario, to the extent possible, it is desirable to plan a curbside within an adjacent parking structure to provide Figure 4-9. Supplemental curbsides. vertical separation to reduce vehicle and pedestrian conflicts and to reduce walking distances and the number of traffic lanes that passengers must cross to enter the terminal. Similar arrangement developed for the recently opened Terminal 5 to the San Diego International Airport arrangement, those at London's Heathrow Airport. airports without an adjacent parking structure could provide a supplemental curbside in an adjacent surface lot. Key Drivers The implementation of supplemental curbsides would be Evaluation driven by the need for additional curbside frontage capacity Passenger Perspective and curbside roadway throughput capacity, as well a desire to improve pedestrian safety by reducing the number of A conventional curbside consisting of multiple islands re- traffic lanes that passengers must cross to access the terminal quires passengers to cross multiple lanes of traffic. Providing (as opposed to providing additional curbside islands accessed a supplemental curbside in a parking structure allows pas- via crosswalks). sengers to cross from the structure to the terminal via a grade- separated walkway. Reducing the number of traffic lanes that must be crossed to access the terminal provides passengers Examples with a sense of improved safety and convenience. Opened in March 2008, Terminal 5 at London's Heathrow The primary disadvantage of the supplemental curbside Airport is the most recent example of a new terminal designed is that it could result in longer passenger walking distances. with both POV and CV curbsides located within an adjacent Passengers accustomed to being dropped off directly adjacent parking structure (see Figure 2-1). This "remote curb" ter- to the terminal would be required to walk from the parking minal accommodates departures and arrivals (POV and CV) structure to the terminal. The walking distances could, how- on the upper level or roof of the parking structure and has a ever, be mitigated by providing moving walkways. bus and coach station on the lower level. Departing passen- gers cross an elevated pedestrian bridge from the upper level Operations Perspective directly into the departures hall while arriving passengers cross the landscaped plaza from baggage claim to the elevator Increasing capacity for curbside operations reduces traffic banks on the lower level that access the parking levels and the congestion, thereby improving traffic operations and safety. arrivals curb. This separation of traffic minimizes the number A supplemental curbside would also allow airport operators of traffic lanes that pedestrians must cross. to separate POV and CV traffic. At airports where both POVs At San Diego International Airport, Terminals 1 and 2 and CVs drop off passengers on the departures level, the each have a supplemental curbside located on a portion of the ability to move one or the other to the supplemental curbside surface parking lot adjacent to the terminal. The curbside would be provided, thereby increasing the curbside capacity accommodates commercial vehicles such as hotel/motel for both mode types.