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36 Challenges to Implementation passengers may elect to use the escalators even if they do not feel comfortable riding on them. Escalators are even more The main challenge to implementing low-profile ticket problematic when passengers have not had the opportunity counter bag well devices is the additional cost of an installation to deposit their check baggage with the airline. that primarily provides enhancements to customer service, High-capacity flow-through elevators are not commonly rather than reducing operating costs. These types of customer- found in U.S. airport terminals, although they are used in service enhancements often do not pass traditional benefit-cost some high-rise buildings and transit centers to transport pas- analysis and must be supported by a larger desire to accommo- sengers between popular destinations. These elevators are date not only mainstream passengers, but also the increasing designed to operate on a fixed schedule and act more like number of aging and disabled passengers, as well as leisure trav- a vertical people mover than a traditional elevator. High- elers with one or more check bags. The challenge to implement- capacity flow-through elevators, unlike traditional elevators, ing low-profile baggage-claim devices is that they provide lower are intended to be in the passenger path of travel (see Fig- capacities than do traditional slope-plate devices. ure 4-14: "Flow Through Arrangement") and can open on both sides of the elevator cab. These types of elevators are fre- quently used in subterranean transit stations where there is a High-Capacity Flow-Through relatively constant flow of passengers and escalators are not Elevators available. While escalators would still be provided to accom- Most U.S. airport terminals use escalators as the primary modate the many passengers who are comfortable using mode of vertical transition for passengers. Elevators, which them, high-capacity flow-through elevators would accom- are required by the Americans with Disabilities Act, are modate the needs not only of the disabled, but also of the eld- typically located in proximity to the escalators, but are not erly and those traveling with small children. These devices usually in the primary path of travel or in the passenger's line could be provided either in the terminal or in landside facili- of sight (see Figure 4-14: "Typical Arrangement"). As a result, ties, such as multistory parking structures. Figure 4-14. High-capacity flow-through elevators.
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37 Key Drivers obviously well suited for high-capacity flow-through elevators. Multilevel terminals provide the opportunity to channel the The primary driving force supporting the need for high- steady flow of arriving passengers to the baggage-claim area capacity flow-through elevators is the aging population. using high-capacity flow-through elevators in addition to As identified in Chapter 2, vertical transitions via escalators escalators. Terminals with additional levels for parking or or stairs, particularly with check baggage, is one of the biggest transit stations would also be excellent candidates. issues for elderly and disabled passengers. Escalators are also challenging for families traveling with small children. Also, baggage carts are typically prohibited from escalators, Evaluation so passengers must deviate from the primary path of travel to continue using their baggage carts. Passenger Perspective The biggest advantage to passengers is the ease of vertical Examples transition, particularly for passengers with check baggage. The fact that these types of elevators are better suited to be Heathrow Airport's recently opened Terminal 5 uses banks in the primary path of travel also benefits other passengers, of five high-capacity flow-through elevators to transport pas- such as the elderly and disabled, who would prefer not to use sengers primarily between the transit station located below escalators or stairs. It is also more convenient for passengers, the pedestrian plaza and the departures level (see Figure 2-1). especially those with baggage carts or in wheel chairs, to enter These elevators (see Figure 4-15) are located on the terminal on one side of an elevator and exit through the other side, side of the parking structure, run on preprogrammed sched- eliminating the first-in, last-out loading and unloading of ules, and have a 50-person capacity. Additional banks of high- standard elevators. capacity flow-through elevators provide passengers access The major disadvantage to high-capacity flow-through between the different levels of the parking structure and the elevators is that, during peak periods, there may be some departures and arrivals levels of the terminal. Passengers trav- queuing in front of the elevators whereas escalators rarely eling between the parking structure and the terminal with check have queues. However, if these elevators are used in conjunc- baggage have a much easier trip, especially since the arrivals tion with escalators as illustrated in Figure 4-14, some passen- and departures curbs are located in the parking structure. gers who intended to use the elevators may decide to use the escalators, keeping the queue to a minimum. Assumptions/Prerequisites High-capacity flow-through elevators require a relatively Operations Perspective constant demand to be effective. Multilevel terminals with High-capacity flow-through elevators, much like traditional baggage claim and ground transportation on the lower level elevators, help reduce the number of injuries to passengers and the departures hall, SSCP, and gates on the upper level are as compared with escalators. They could also satisfy the Americans with Disabilities Act requirements for elevators, so duplicate elevators would not be required. Another advan- tage would be that the elevator schedules could be set to re- duce the number of trips during nonpeak periods, reducing wear and energy consumption. One disadvantage to high-capacity flow-through elevators is the need for two or more at each location to maintain acceptable frequencies and to achieve the desired level of service. Most traditional elevators are not intended to be the primary mode of vertical transportation, so only one is installed in most locations. Challenges to Implementation The biggest challenge to widespread implementation of Figure 4-15. Heathrow Airport Terminal 5-- high-capacity flow-through elevators is the familiarity with high-capacity flow-through elevators. and preference for escalators by U.S. passengers. Another Source: Corgan Associates, Inc. big challenge is that the retrofitting of existing buildings