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42 CHAPTER 5 Landside Concepts Based on a review of the innovations described in Chapter 4, be dependent upon numerous variables. These variables in- several passenger-processing concepts were developed to illus- clude, but are not limited to, the goals of the airport operator trate the general process that a departing or arriving passenger and other stakeholders, budgetary constraints, and compati- could experience while traveling through the airport landside bility with existing facilities. The alternatives would be appli- environment. For the purpose of this research project, three cable to a wide variety of airport sizes, with the exception of landside concepts were developed, incorporating innovations Alternative 4: because of its complexity and number of func- discussed in Chapter 4, to illustrate the passenger experience tions, Alternative 4 is more suited to implementation at larger and range of activities that would occur from the point the airports. The five APPF concept alternatives are described passenger enters the airport property in a vehicle (e.g., POV, below. CV, or public transport) until the point where the passenger arrives at the face of the terminal. The facilities that illustrate Alternative 1 the three general concepts and processes described in the fol- lowing sections are defined as: The primary components related to the departing passen- ger's experience in Alternative 1 include a bag-check plaza Adjacent passenger-processing facilities (APPF); located prior to entering the central terminal area and POV On-airport passenger-processing facilities (OPPF); and passenger drop-off in the adjacent parking structure. As shown Remote passenger-processing facilities (RPPF). in Figure 5-1, passengers in POVs would check their baggage at the bag-check plaza and proceed to the supplemental curb- side located on an elevated level of the parking structure to Adjacent Passenger-Processing drop off their passenger(s) and either park or exit the structure. Facilities Passengers would then proceed to an elevated walkway cross- The APPF concept is envisioned to accommodate vehicle ing to the terminal building and then down an escalator to the parking and curbside facilities in proximity to, but not neces- departures hall. sarily attached to, the terminal (departures hall, SSCP, baggage For arriving passengers, the POV supplemental curbside claim, etc). A primary component of the APPF would be a would be located at grade level in the adjacent parking struc- new or existing parking structure that accommodates various ture. Passengers would exit baggage claim and cross the CV functions intended to improve customer service and to increase curbside roadway to the POV pickup curbside located in the the efficiency of landside operations. These functions could adjacent parking structure. CV drop-off and pickup curbsides include innovations such as the bag-check plaza, a supple- would remain adjacent to the terminal building. mental curbside, and a passenger assistance parking area. APPF could also serve as a central hub for other facilities, such as re- Alternative 2 gional transit and consolidated rental car facilities. Various alternatives for APPF are described below. Alternative 2 (see Figure 5-2) would provide departing pas- sengers with a bag-check plaza; however, unlike Alternative 1, POV passenger pickup and drop-off would be accommodated Alternatives adjacent to the terminal while CV passenger pickup and drop It is anticipated that an APPF concept could consist of an off would be located at a supplemental curbside on an elevated unlimited number of features and configurations that would level of the parking structure.

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43 Figure 5-1. APPF Alternative 1. Figure 5-2. APPF Alternative 2. Departing CV passengers would take an elevated walkway would take an escalator located in the parking structure crossing to the terminal building and then take an escalator up one level to the elevated walkway crossing into the de- up to the departures hall. Arriving CV passengers would re- partures hall. trieve their baggage and proceed up an escalator and across Arriving POV passengers would be accommodated at grade the elevated walkway to the curbside. level adjacent to the terminal. Arriving CV passengers would be accommodated in the same location as departing CV pas- sengers. Passengers would proceed out of baggage claim and Alternative 3 cross the POV curbside roadway to the CV curbside located Alternative 3 would accommodate all departing passen- in the parking structure. gers in the parking structure. As illustrated in Figure 5-3, POV passenger drop-off would be located at a supplemental Alternative 4 curbside on an elevated level of the parking structure while CV passenger drop-off and pickup would be accommodated In Alternative 4 (see Figure 5-4), the passenger-processing at grade level. POV passengers would take an elevated walk- facility would provide a wider range of functions, essen- way crossing into the departures hall while CV passengers tially replacing many functions that would be conventionally

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44 Figure 5-3. APPF Alternative 3. located within the terminal building. POVs and CVs carrying departing passengers would be inspected at a vehicle checkpoint before proceeding to the main support facility (or parking structure) for drop-off and check-in. Passengers would then take an elevated walkway crossing to the terminal building. At the terminal building, passengers would be screened at the SSCP and proceed to their gate. POV drop-off and pickup would be provided on the same Figure 5-4. APPF Alternative 4. level within the parking structure. It is, therefore, anticipated that all POVs would require inspection because they would CV passenger drop-off would be provided on the level im- be entering a facility (and potentially parking) where sub- mediately above POV passenger drop-off, at the same elevation stantial passenger-processing functions would take place, in- as the terminal departures level. CV passengers would have volving relatively large numbers of people. After inspection, the opportunity to check their baggage using either SSDs or POVs would proceed either through the bag-check plaza or full-service counters at this level and would proceed into the directly into the support facility for passenger drop-off and terminal to the SSCP. Upon retrieving their baggage, arriving potentially parking. To avoid vehicle/pedestrian conflict, passengers would take an elevator or escalator down one level departing passengers would then proceed via elevator or to the arrivals curbside. escalator up to the check-in facilities. Arriving passengers would claim their baggage in the terminal, but all other ser- Alternative 5 vices, including POV and CV passenger pickup, would be accommodated in the adjacent parking structure. Arriving Alternative 5 would accommodate all passenger pickup passengers who are to be picked up by a POV could proceed and drop-off functions in a facility adjacent to the terminal. directly to the curbside on the arrivals level or, if they are to As shown in Figure 5-5, departing passengers using POVs and access a CV, take a high-capacity flow-through elevator down CVs would be accommodated on a supplemental curbside on to the CV curbside for pickup. an elevated level of the parking structure. Passengers would

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45 Common Disadvantages A common disadvantage among the APPF alternatives is that the facilities would be constructed in what is likely an already congested central terminal area, which would result in high construction costs and potentially significant opera- tional disruptions. In the case of Alternative 4, it may be that a support facility of this scope would replace too many ter- minal functions, leading to large amounts of redundant space and roadway capacity. Because more passenger processing would be occurring in an adjacent facility, each alternative may result in longer walking distances because passengers are required to cross a roadway or take an elevated walkway crossing to reach their desired locations. Alternative 4 would likely require that POVs and CVs be inspected because of the large numbers of pedestrians in the facility, which would in- volve passenger inconvenience and increased operating costs. Alternatives Evaluation Two sets of criteria were developed to evaluate the alterna- tives. The first set of criteria relates to passengers; the second set of criteria relates to feasibility of implementation. Table 5-1 sets forth the specific criteria and the corresponding benefits Figure 5-5. APPF Alternative 5. of each APPF alternative. then take an elevated walkway crossing directly into the de- Passenger Criteria partures hall. Arriving passengers using POVs and CVs would be accommodated on a supplemental curbside on grade level The use of a supplemental curbside in an adjacent facility in the parking structure. After retrieving their baggage, pas- or parking structure would likely increase walking distances sengers would proceed out of the terminal building and across in all of the APPF alternatives. Passengers accustomed to all a courtyard to the parking structure. This alternative essentially curbside functions being directly adjacent to the terminal creates a "remote curb" terminal building. building will experience a reduced level of service as they will have to walk between the supplemental curbside in the garage and the terminal building. Common Advantages The majority of commercial service airports require at least A common advantage among all of the APPF alterna- one level change regardless of the desired ground transporta- tives is the ability for departing passengers to check baggage tion mode. In many cases, more than one level change may prior to parking or being dropped off, which relieves pas- be required. None of the APPF alternatives requires more than sengers of handling their baggage and reduces congestion one level change. In many cases, the level change is provided on the curbside and in the departures hall. Another common to avoid vehicle and pedestrian conflicts. advantage is the ability to drop passengers off at the supple- The bag-check plaza would significantly increase the benefit mental curbside located in the garage, which relieves conges- of all APPF alternatives by relieving POV passengers from tion on the terminal roadway system and allows park-and-fly carrying their baggage from their parked vehicle into the ter- passengers to drop their companions prior to parking. Also, minal building. This would be especially beneficial to elderly vertically separated supplemental curbsides would reduce and disabled passengers. vehicle/pedestrian conflicts. Alternative 4 would provide Wayfinding under APPF Alternatives 1, 2, and 3 would major congestion relief for an existing terminal, enabling it become less intuitive as a result of the addition of a supple- essentially--on the departures side--to become a secure mental curbside in the adjacent facility or parking structure. building, which could provide an improved departures Alternative 3, for example, would accommodate POV passen- environment and enhanced revenue-producing concession ger drop-off in the support facility and POV passenger pickup opportunities. adjacent to the terminal. The vertical, as well as horizontal,

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46 Table 5-1. APPF alternatives evaluation matrix. APPF Alternatives 1 2 3 4 5 Passenger criteria Walking distances -- -- -- -- -- Number of level changes Baggage handling by passengers Wayfinding -- Safety / security Feasibity criteria Capital cost of implementation Revenue generation potential -- Operational considerations Environmental -- -- Security considerations -- -- -- Significant benefits Marginal benefits -- No considerable benefit separation of curbside facilities could confuse drivers as well would otherwise be unable to be accommodated. Accommo- as pedestrians as they try to locate their desired terminal road- dating these additional services or providers could, therefore, way or curbside. However, this issue could be remedied by increase the fees paid to the airport. Under Alternative 4, ensuring that adequate signage is in place. Alternatives 4 more passenger-processing functions would be located in the and 5 resemble a more traditional terminal roadway entrance adjacent facility, which would provide an opportunity to ac- as curbsides would be vertically separated. commodate additional concessions in the adjacent facility. Alternatives 1 and 3 would provide a safer environment for The use of a supplemental curbside in Alternatives 1, 2, pedestrians as vehicle and pedestrian conflicts would be elim- and 3 would provide not only additional curbside capacity, inated for departing and arriving passengers. Because of the but also the ability to further separate mode types, which proximity of passenger-processing functions such as check- would provide less mixing of POVs and CVs. As mentioned in and baggage claim, security would be a major factor with above, the supplemental curbside would also allow for a re- Alternative 4. Vehicles would have to be inspected prior to duction in vehicle/pedestrian conflicts. entering the facility. APPF Alternatives 1, 2, and 3 could require renovation of existing facilities while they remain in operation, which would be challenging. The construction of a supplemental curbside Feasibility Criteria would disrupt the existing parking operation and could The cost to implement any of the APPF alternatives would impact existing roadway operations. Alternative 4 would require likely be significant. As mentioned in Chapter 4, the physical the construction of a new facility and, depending on its loca- limitations of existing facilities (e.g., column spacing and tion, would have a much lower impact on existing operations. inadequate floor-to-ceiling height) would limit the ability to As noted in Chapter 4, one of the advantages of the bag-check retrofit an existing parking structure to accommodate curb- plaza is that it reduces curbside roadway congestion associated side facilities--as incorporated in Alternatives 1, 2, and 3-- with curbside check-in. This reduction in the number of and could make the project very expensive. However, it should vehicles idling on the curbside roadways would also decrease be noted that accommodating terminal functions in a garage- vehicle emissions. On the other hand, there would be the type facility should decrease the need to expand a potentially potential difficulty and cost associated with delivering the bags more expensive terminal building with less disruption to from the check-in facility to the terminal baggage system. operations. As mentioned in the description of the alterna- tives, Alternative 4 would provide a wider range of functions APPF Concept Example than would normally be located in the terminal. Renovation of an existing facility or parking structure would, therefore, The APPF concept example (see Figures 5-6 through 5-8) is not likely be required. A new facility would have to be con- functionally similar to APPF Alternative 1. Figure 5-6 shows structed, which would require a considerable capital invest- how this concept would inter-relate with three common termi- ment and potential disruption of an existing operation. nal and roadway configurations. As shown in the section illus- The ability to generate minimal additional revenue could trated in Figure 5-6: "Two Level Terminal and Roadway," this result where a supplemental curbside provides space for concept would provide vertical separation of POV passenger additional ground transportation services or providers that drop-off and pickup activities in an adjacent parking structure.

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47 Figure 5-6. APPF concept example--section. POV departing passenger drop-off would occur on an upper level of the structure, and POV arriving passenger pickup would be accommodated on a lower level. In this example, CV passenger pickup and drop-off would be accommodated at the terminal building curbside. The POV passenger drop-off area would be connected directly to the terminal via a pedestrian bridge. The elevation of the pedestrian bridge and the location of the POV curbsides would vary depending upon the config- uration of the terminal building and curbside roadway system. The APPF conceptual layout of the upper-level facilities is shown in Figure 5-7. POVs destined for the passenger drop-off areas would have the option of accessing the bag-check plaza to check-in for their flight and drop off their baggage. POVs would then proceed to the supplemental curbside located in the parking structure for passenger drop-off. In this example, a passenger assistance parking area accessed directly from the POV passenger drop-off curbside is provided to accommodate passengers desiring assistance in unloading (limited to 10- to 15-min dwell times). In addition, direct access to a short-term parking area (e.g., 1-hr parking) is also provided via the POV Figure 5-7. APPF concept example--upper level. passenger drop-off roadway. Close-in parking on other levels of the garage could also be accessed directly, giving vehicle driv- The APPF conceptual layout of the lower-level facilities is ers the opportunity to drop off their passengers and proceed depicted in Figure 5-8. Similar to the upper-level, a POV pas- directly to parking or to exit the terminal area. Park-and-fly senger pickup curbside would be provided along a linear passengers would proceed directly to parking or, if they have curbside within the structure. A passenger assistance parking bags to check, to the bag-check plaza and then to parking. area would also be provided, accessible via the POV curbside