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48 terminal functions, because of its location flexibility, the OPPF could effectively accommodate an integrated rental car facility or a regional transit connection. Alternatives As with the APPF, it is anticipated that an OPPF concept could consist of an unlimited number of features and config- urations that would be dependent upon numerous variables. These variables include, but are not limited to, the goals of the airport operator and other stakeholders, budgetary constraints, and compatibility with existing facilities. The OPPF alterna- tives would be applicable to a wide variety of airport sizes, with the exception of OPPF Alternative 3, which is more suited to implementation at larger airports. The passenger-processing functions included in each of the three OPPF alternatives are described below. Alternative 1 Of the three OPPF alternatives, Alternative 1 (see Figure 5-9) would provide the fewest passenger functions. A bag-check plaza would be provided for departing passengers. Park-and- fly passengers would then proceed to parking and take a non- secure transit system to the terminal. POV passengers who are being dropped off could be accommodated in the OPPF or be dropped off directly at the terminal. Passengers wishing to be picked up by POVs or CVs would be picked up at the terminal building. Those passengers who parked at the OPPF would return to the OPPF via the transit system and would then proceed to their vehicles. Figure 5-8. APPF concept example--lower level. Alternative 2 roadway. In this layout, passengers using the passenger assis- OPPF Alternative 2 (see Figure 5-10) would provide the tance parking area would not have to cross traffic lanes to same functions as OPPF Alternative 1 for POV passengers, as access the terminal. One-hour parking is also provided at this level for meeters and greeters who wish to meet their parties inside the terminal. As shown in Figure 5-8, CV passenger pickup would be accommodated along the curbside roadway fronting the terminal building. On-Airport Passenger-Processing Facilities Under the OPPF concept, the vehicle parking and curb- side facilities would be integrated with a range of terminal functions in a facility on the airport, but at some distance from the terminal building and connected by a passenger conveyance system. Passengers would park and be processed in the same facility before taking a conveyance system to the secure portion of the terminal building. In addition to Figure 5-9. OPPF Alternative 1.

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49 well as additional curbside facilities to allow CV passenger pickup and drop-off at the facility--essentially creating a ground transportation center with parking and an APM connection to the terminal. Alternative 3 OPPF Alternative 3 (see Figure 5-11) represents a fully developed on-airport landside support facility with a secure APM connection to the secure portion of the terminal. Departing passengers would begin with POV inspection, then continue to the bag-check plaza, and then to the OPPF, which would provide for both POV and CV passenger drop-off. Departing passengers would then proceed to the SSCP and the integrated APM station to the terminal. Arriving passengers would take the secure APM connection from the secure portion of the terminal to the OPPF and then proceed into the baggage-claim hall and to the POV and CV passenger pick-up area and Figure 5-10. OPPF Alternative 2. parking. Figure 5-11. OPPF Alternative 3.

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50 Common Advantages Passenger Criteria The primary advantage of the OPPF concept and the OPPF A fully integrated landside support facility where all pas- alternatives is the flexibility of the facility's location relative senger functions such as parking and check-in facilities are to the airside. The site could be selected on the basis of airport vertically separated would have the ability to reduce walking circulation, constructibility, land cost, and accessibility to re- distances for those parking in the facility. However, depend- gional transit or suitability for rental car operations without ing upon the layout of the OPPF and the proximity of the having to provide direct access to the secure portion of the curbside to the APM station, walking distances could be terminal. The OPPF alternatives would avoid the operational substantial. and cost impacts of building in a congested central terminal While vertical separation of passenger functions would assist area, which could offset some of the costs for a required tran- in reducing walking distances, the number of level changes sit connection. Functions provided as part of OPPF Alterna- would likely increase. OPPF Alternative 3 would require the tive 3 would greatly reduce the departures hall requirements highest number of level changes. Ensuring an adequate num- and eliminate the need for a baggage-claim hall in the termi- ber of elevators or escalators to transport passengers between nal building. their desired levels would, therefore, be a critical and required component of this concept. While the bag-check plaza would relieve passengers from Common Disadvantages carrying their baggage from their parked vehicles into the The disadvantages of the OPPF concept include the need terminal building, OPPF Alternatives 1 and 2 would re- for a transit connection, which would incur costs and the quire arriving passengers to handle check baggage on the potential difficulty of establishing a right-of-way. A similar passenger conveyance system when returning to parking. disadvantage would apply to connecting check baggage to the OPPF Alternative 3 would provide check-in in the OPPF, terminal baggage system. With OPPF Alternatives 1 and 2, minimizing the distance passengers would have to handle passengers who claim their baggage at the terminal building their baggage. would have to carry their baggage on the transit connection The ease of wayfinding would be dependent upon the back to their parking location. number of functions provided in the OPPF. If the facility were to be used to supplement an existing terminal, passen- gers may have difficulty determining the location that best Alternatives Evaluation suits their needs. Each of the OPPF alternatives is intended to provide a Similar to the APPF, two sets of criteria were developed to safer environment for pedestrians as vehicle/pedestrian evaluate each OPPF alternative. The first set of criteria relates conflicts would be minimized for departing and arriving to passengers; the second set of criteria relates to feasibility of passengers. As passenger-processing functions such as implementation. Table 5-2 sets forth the specific criteria and check-in and baggage claim would be included, potentially the corresponding benefits of each OPPF alternative. involving large concentrations of passengers, security could be a major factor in OPPF Alternative 3. Therefore, it would Table 5-2. OPPF alternatives evaluation likely be necessary to inspect every vehicle prior to it entering matrix. the facility. OPPF Alternatives 1 2 3 Feasibility Criteria Passenger criteria Walking distances -- -- -- The cost savings of building an OPPF as opposed to ex- Number of level changes -- -- -- Baggage handling by passengers -- panding an existing terminal would depend on the location Wayfinding -- and functions included in the OPPF. A facility consisting of a Safety / security parking structure and passenger drop-off facilities, such as Feasibity criteria Capital cost of implementation OPPF Alternative 1, would cost less than a more comprehen- Revenue generation potential -- sive facility, such as that in OPPF Alternative 3. However, use Operational considerations of the transit connection to the terminal would be lower in Environmental Security considerations -- OPPF Alternative 1 although ridership could be increased if rental car return or a regional transit station were included Significant benefits Marginal benefits in the facility. The proximity of the OPPF to the existing -- No considerable benefit terminal and the subsequent length of passenger and baggage

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51 conveyance systems would also affect the overall cost of the facility. The OPPF would provide the opportunity to generate new revenue by increasing parking supply and services available in the remote facility, as well as new concessions. This provision of additional capacity would also allow an airport operator to recapture parking demand and associated revenue that had been lost to off-airport parking providers. Integration of the functions that would be provided in the OPFF and the existing terminal would require considerable attention. Passengers accustomed to a single passenger- processing facility would need to be educated as to the location of services that may now be provided at one or two possible locations (e.g., the terminal); however, this issue could be addressed by creating effective wayfinding and signage. The complexity of implementing the OPPF would depend on where the facility is to be located. A major advantage of the OPPF is its location flexibility, which should allow the selec- tion of a buildable site with good construction access and minimal disruptions to ongoing operations. Operationally, increasing the capacity of landside facili- ties may reduce traffic recirculation; however, additional capacity may also increase the number of vehicles accessing the airport. Also, the location of the OPPF may require the introduction of shuttle services to access both facilities, thereby increasing the overall number of vehicle trips and emissions. OPPF Concept Example The OPPF concept example (see Figures 5-12 and 5-13) provides a more detailed representation of OPPF Alterna- tive 2. This example includes a two-level facility with POV passenger pickup and drop-off occurring on the upper level of a parking structure and CV passenger pickup and drop-off occurring on the lower level. The upper level OPPF configuration is depicted in Fig- ure 5-12. Similar to the APPF concept example, POVs des- tined for the passenger drop-off curbside would have the option of stopping at a bag-check plaza, proceeding directly to the drop-off curbside in the facility, or proceeding to the terminal. A passenger assistance parking area, as well as a short- term parking area, would be provided on the upper level. Park-and-fly passengers could proceed directly to parking. A POV passenger pickup curbside accessible via the same inbound roadway system, or from the parking above, would be provided on the opposite side of the parking garage. Passengers would be transported to the terminal via a non- secure people mover. The lower-level OPPF configuration is depicted in Fig- Figure 5-12. OPPF concept example--upper level. ure 5-13. As shown, a shuttle drop curbside and staging area with islands would be provided to accommodate passenger