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53 Alternative 2 RPPF Concept Example RPPF Alternative 2 (see Figure 5-15) is a full-service remote The RPPF concept example (see Figure 5-16) provides a more terminal that would provide the opportunity to check bag- detailed representation of RPPF Alternative 1. The example gage and use full-service check-in functions. An SSCP would represents an RPPF where passengers could park their also be provided; therefore, a secure link to the terminal vehicles or use other transportation modes (e.g., public would need to be provided, which could also be used to trans- transit, taxicabs) to access the facility. At the RPPF, passen- fer outbound and inbound baggage. Regional transit could be gers could obtain boarding passes and check their baggage accommodated on a lower level with self-service check-in and before boarding a train or bus providing direct service bag drop. to the airport. As shown in Figure 5-16, the passenger- processing facilities and curbside facilities would be provided on the lower level of a parking structure, with public park- ing provided above these facilities. A linear curbside would be provided for POV and taxicab and other CV passenger pickup and drop-off. Passengers would walk through a ticket lobby and services/concessions area to reach a rail platform, where they could board a train that would transport them to the airport. This function is shown on the same level as the other functions, but could be accommodated on an upper or lower level. Short-term (1-hr) parking would be provided on the lower level of the RPPF, adjacent to the passenger-processing facilities. A regional transit or sub- way station could be accommodated on a lower level (not shown). Landside Concept Considerations Discussed in this section are the key physical and non- physical airport attributes that should be considered by airport operators and terminal landside planners when identifying landside concepts for further consideration. A summary (see Table 5-3) is provided to further compare these attributes and the general level of importance of an attribute in influencing the desirability and likely success of a landside concept. Airport attributes that should be considered when developing a landside concept are summa- rized in two categories--physical attributes and nonphysical Figure 5-15. RPPF Alternative 2. attributes. Figure 5-16. RPPF concept example.

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54 Table 5-3. Landside concept example comparison. Landside Concept Example Key Considerations APPF OPPF RPPF Physical attributes Availability of land Roadway and parking access control -- Availability and configuration of close-in parking -- Regional transit connection to airport Rental car operations -- Non-physical attributes Facility cost Constructibility and operational disruption -- Availability of PFC funds -- Airport bonding capacity -- Federal transit funding availabiilty -- -- Airport and regional policies Ground transportation characteristics -- Passenger characteristics Attribute is a major consideration Attribute is important but not a major consideration -- Attribute is not a concern Physical Attributes Availability and Configuration of Close-in Parking Physical attributes of the airport that would affect the selection of a desired future landside concept may include the The availability of a close-in parking structure may influ- following. ence the decision to develop an APPF or an OPPF. In addition, the configuration of the facility would be a consideration with regard to the ability to retrofit an existing structure to provide Availability of Land an efficient passenger pickup and drop-off plaza for POV and The location of available land for facility development CV operations. For example, a low floor-to-ceiling height may would have a direct effect on the type of landside facility that limit the size of CVs that would be allowed to serve a plaza. could be developed. For example, a fully developed terminal A low ceiling height could also affect lighting, wayfinding, area may be considered an impediment to constructing a and overall passenger comfort within the structure. An exist- close-in landside facility (APPF), unless the APPF were to be ing structure may also require additional ventilation systems implemented as a retrofit or replacement to an existing facility. to accommodate the introduction of idling vehicles within However, airports that do not have a close-in parking structure the facility. The configuration and spacing of the column grid may be candidates for an APPF. Airports with undeveloped would also affect the ability to accommodate an efficient land remote from the terminal may find the OPPF concept curbside pickup and drop-off plaza. more desirable. On the other hand, airports with severe land constraints may find that an off-airport RPPF could serve as Regional Transit Connection to Airport a potential solution. The availability and location of existing and future rail transit services may affect the selection of a location for Roadway and Parking Access Control implementation of a landside passenger-processing facility. Configuration of the airport's access and parking control For example, the integration of a rail station could allow system(s) is primarily a design consideration that can be for co-locating services and facilities such as ticketing, bag- addressed as part of the development of a landside concept; check, and concessions more feasibly in an OPPF than an however, the potential effect on access and parking control APPF because the latter is likely to be in a more congested systems should be considered as part of concept development. area. For those airports where a future rail connection is An APPF configuration may require integration of the land- planned, an RPPF could be co-located with other "non- side plaza (e.g., short-term parking) into an existing parking airport" station facilities to promote use of the rail system structure, but require a separate entry and exit that would and encourage the success of other synergistic retail and maintain the integrity of the parking revenue control system. concession services.

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55 Rental Car Operations would vary by airport and by project, but could include air- port revenue bonds, PFC revenues, Airport Improvement The type of rental car services currently provided and plans Program (AIP) grants for certain aspects of the concept ded- for future expansion could be a consideration for inclusion icated exclusively for airport access, and other federal transit within a landside concept. For example, providing consoli- grants. dated rental car facilities within or adjacent to an OPPF could help generate passenger demand that would justify and sup- port the introduction of an APM connecting the OPPF to the Airport and Regional Policies terminal. Airport and regional policies pertaining to environmental initiatives may favor the implementation of certain landside Nonphysical Attributes concepts and operational schemes designed to reduce roadway congestion, annual vehicle-miles-traveled, and air pollutants. Nonphysical attributes of the airport that would affect the For example, airports with a transit-oriented policy may find selection of a desired future landside concept may include the the RPPF concept desirable. In addition, regulations and following. policies in effect at certain airports may limit how the airport can be modified. For example, historical zoning restrictions Facility Cost at Washington Dulles International Airport limit how the original airport facilities can be modified and restrict the de- In addition to the construction costs that will vary by option, velopment of facilities that would obstruct the view of the the capital costs needed to ready the site and to construct airport terminal building. the facility would range greatly from concept to concept. For example, the costs would vary significantly depending upon whether the facility is developed on a greenfield site; Ground Transportation Characteristics is a retrofit to an existing facility; or, if an existing close-in facility, would be removed to allow for construction of a The traffic volumes by mode type will help determine the new facility. The capital and operating costs of transporting size and configuration of the components of the various passengers, and possibly baggage, to and from the site via a landside concepts. Airports with high CV traffic would pedestrian bridge, APM, or transit system would also be a require landside facilities capable of accommodating consideration, particularly for the OPPF. these larger vehicles and the passenger volumes associated with them. Airports would also have to accommodate POV traffic and provide access options that accommodate the Constructibility and Operational Disruption high volumes and traffic patterns of these vehicles, includ- The ability to construct a facility in an operational airport ing those proceeding to parking, to curbside, or to both environment would be a consideration. The APPF, for exam- locations. ple, would likely create greater operational disruptions and airport passenger inconvenience given its location directly Passenger Characteristics adjacent to the terminal building and potentially within an existing parking structure. The OPPF and RPPF, on the other Passenger characteristics will affect how a passenger- hand, could be constructed at "remote" locations that would processing solution is implemented. Airports serving a large conceivably result in fewer construction-related impacts. elderly population may be more likely candidates for use of assisted parking spaces or, at a minimum, convenient close- in parking. The proportion of passengers with checked Funding Availability baggage, such as those traveling to leisure destinations, The availability of funding would be a consideration in the would also affect the locations of ticketing and baggage- development of facilities. Funding sources and availability check facilities.