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65 APPENDIX Simulation Analysis Results Computer simulation analyses were performed to estimate Methodology facility requirements for selected concepts: (1) a process-based departures hall concept and (2) a landside concept, the bag- Three scenarios were reviewed to show the impact on the check plaza. Rather than develop representative computer sim- terminal of a three-lane check-in facility. ulation models, it was determined that it was more effective to use existing datasets of actual U.S. airports so that realistic 1. The first scenario (or baseline) identifies the number of estimates could be obtained for the selected concepts. The positions required for each component if each airline objectives of the computer simulation analyses were to esti- maintains dedicated positions. There would be no dedi- mate operational benefits and facility requirements. cated self-service bag drop in place for the one-step process (today's environment), while self-service bag drop was assumed for the two-step process. Process-Based Departures Hall 2. The second scenario identifies the maximum number of Concept Simulation Analysis common-use positions by type when each airline is The three-lane check-in concept was simulated to estimate assigned check-in positions that vary by demand through- the check-in position requirements based on the process- out the day. (This is similar to today's implementation based departures hall innovation. This concept consists of of common-use facilities, where an airline is allocated three components for departing passengers, using different check-in positions for a block of time to accommodate its access points depending on their service requirements: flights.) 3. The third scenario identifies the number of positions re- 1. Full-service counters, quired for the "process-based" approach, where all airlines 2. Self-service bag drop, and would share common positions. 3. Self-service devices. Two datasets of existing airport passenger terminals were Objective used to evaluate the departures hall concept. One dataset (Airport A) is a single concourse within the airport, with The objective of the simulation analysis was to identify three commercial passenger airlines serving just fewer than the number of check-in positions required for the three com- 2 million annual enplaned passengers. The second dataset ponents. Both a one-step check-in process and a two-step (Airport B) incorporated operations by seven commercial check-in process were analyzed. passenger airlines forecast to serve just fewer than 7 million For the one-step process, it was assumed that the self- annual enplaned passengers. service check-in and bag-drop operations would occur together as one process. The average processing time was Assumptions calculated as a weighted average of bag drop only (Internet Airport A check-in passengers with bags); self-service check-in with bags; and self-service check-in without bags. On average, originating passengers arrive at the airport For the two-step process, it was assumed that the passenger 110 min prior to a departing flight scheduled before 9:00 A.M., would first use the self-service device for check-in, then and 115 min prior to a departing flight scheduled after proceed to a second location for self-service bag drop. 9:00 A.M. Table A-1 shows the assumptions for passenger

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66 check-in locations, and Table A-2 shows the average check- Table A-6 shows the average check-in processing times by in processing time by component. component. Airport B Description of Simulation Models On average, originating passengers arrive at the airport Airport A 60 min prior to a departing flight scheduled before 9:00 A.M. and 74 min prior to a departing flight scheduled after Airport A has an average of 1.6 passengers per group, with 9:00 A.M. Tables A-3, A-4, and A-5 show the assumptions for an average of 0.9 checked bags per passenger group. In the passenger check-in locations for a low-cost carrier and for departures peak-hour, there are 8 departing flights and other airlines with and without the use of curbside check-in. 566 originating passengers. All three airlines at this facility are Table A-1. Airport A passenger and baggage check-in locations (source: TransSolutions, LLC). Passenger Type Type of Positions With Check Baggage Without Check Baggage Full-service counters 26.8% 11.4% Self-service devices 28.6 36.4 Internet 44.6 52.2 Table A-2. Airport A average check-in processing times by passenger group and location (source: TransSolutions, LLC). Type of Positions Average Processing Time (minutes) Full-service counters 3.4 Self-service bag drop1 1.5 Self-service device 2.1 Self-service device + bag drop2 1.6 1 The self-service bag-drop processing time is estimated at approximately 70% of kiosk processing time. 2 When the two check-in functions are combined at one kiosk for the one-step process, the processing time is a weighted average time for passengers checking-in with and without check bags and passengers with check bags who obtained boarding passes on the Internet. Table A-3. Airport B passenger and baggage check-in locations for a low-cost carrier (source: TransSolutions, LLC). Passenger Type Type of Positions With Check Baggage Without Check Baggage Full-service counters 18.8% 13.5% Self-service device 15.3 39.1 Internet 57.3 41.2 Curbside1 8.6 6.2 1 It was assumed that all curbside check-in passengers would use the self-service devices. Table A-4. Airport B passenger and baggage check-in locations for other airlines with curbside check-in (source: TransSolutions, LLC). Passenger Type Type of Positions With Check Baggage Without Check Baggage Full-service counters 20.5% 18.9% Self-service device 30.9 36.4 Internet 38.9 35.8 Curbside1 9.7 8.9 1 It was assumed that all curbside check-in passengers would use the self-service devices

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67 Table A-5. Airport B passenger and baggage check-in locations for other airlines without curbside check-in (source: TransSolutions, LLC). Passenger Type Type of Positions With Check Baggage Without Check Baggage Full-service counters 22.7% 20.9% Self-service device 34.2 39.5 Internet 43.1 39.6 Table A-6. Average check-in processing times Under the second scenario, representing today's common- by location (source: TransSolutions, LLC). use environment where check-in positions are allocated by airline throughout the day to meet the airlines' flight schedule Average Processing Time Type of Positions and/or hourly passenger demand, there would be a small (minutes) 1 Full-service counters 2.3 savings in the number of both full-service positions and self- Self-service bag drop 1.4 service kiosks. Self-service device 1.3 Self-service device + bag drop 2.4 Under the third scenario, with a process-based approach, 1 The combination of a low-cost carrier and other airline processing times. the required number of full-service check-in positions would be reduced to five, a 45% reduction compared with the first legacy carriers, with the peak hours occurring at approximately scenario; however, the number of self-service positions would the same time of day. remain about the same. Table A-7 summarizes the check-in position requirements for the one-step process, and Table A-8 summarizes the find- Airport B ings for the two-step process. Airport B has an average of 1.3 passengers per group, with Since the three airlines at Airport A all have peak depar- an average of 1.1 checked bags per passenger group. In the de- ture hours at approximately the same time, a similar partures peak-hour, there are 18 departing flights and 2,093 number of self-service devices would be required with the originating passengers. The seven airlines operating at this process-based approach as with dedicated facilities (today's airport terminal include both legacy carriers and low-cost scenario). However, there would be a significant (45%) carriers. One predominant airline has approximately half of reduction in the number of required full-service check-in the market share at this airport. positions. Airport B Results Under the first scenario, with individual check-in positions Airport A allocated to the seven airlines on a long-term basis (although Under the first scenario, with individual check-in positions each airline may not require the number of positions allocated allocated to the three airlines on a long-term basis (although except during certain periods of the day), 17 full-service coun- each airline may not require the number of allocated positions ters would be required for both the one-step and the two-step except during certain periods of the day), nine full-service processes, while the two-step process would require 15% fewer positions are required for both the one-step and the two- self-service check-in devices (44 SSDs) than the one-step step processes, while the two-step process requires 25% more process (52 SSDs). self-service check-in devices (12 SSDs) than the one-step Under the second scenario, representing today's common- process (9 SSDs). use environment where check-in positions are allocated Table A-7. Summary of check-in position requirements: Airport A one-step process (source: TransSolutions, LLC). Number of Positions Type of Positions Scenario 1 Scenario 2 Scenario 3 Positions Dedicated to Today's Common Use Process-based Each Airline Full-service counters 9 8 5 Self-service device 9 9 9

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68 by airline throughout the day to meet the airlines' flight at other times. This sharing of facilities shows that an exist- schedules and/or hourly passenger demand, there would be a ing airport departures hall (with dedicated airline check-in small savings in the number of full-service check-in positions equipment) can accommodate a significant increase in the (15 compared with 17 above) and in the number of self-service number of passengers by adopting a process-based approach. kiosks (41 SSDs for the one-step process and 37 SSDs for the two-step process). Landside Bag-Check Plaza Concept Under the third scenario, with a process-based approach, Simulation Analysis only 10 full-service check-in positions would be required-- a 40% reduction compared with the first scenario; like- Operations in the bag-check plaza were simulated to estimate wise, the number of required self-service positions would the numbers of self-service check-in positions and parking/ be reduced to 37 SSDs for the one-step process and 28 SSDs queue positions required to accommodate passenger demand. for the two-step process. For the one-step process, the re- The impact on the terminal check-in hall of providing a bag- quirement for SSDs would be reduced by about 29%, and check plaza was also analyzed. for the two-step process, the requirements would be re- duced by 47% for SSDs and 31% for self-service baggage Methodology check. Table A-9 summarizes the check-in equipment requirements The dataset used in this simulation analysis represents a for the one-step process, and Table A-10 summarizes the re- medium-hub airport with a high percentage of POVs. Ex- quirements for the two-step process. isting demand (from 2002) at one domestic terminal was As the airlines at Airport B have different peak departure approximately 1,200 peak-hour enplaned passengers on hours, significant reductions in check-in equipment would 11 peak-hour aircraft departures. The bag-check plaza was be realized in the process-based departures hall. The check- evaluated with different numbers of check-in stations to de- in devices used predominantly by one airline's passengers termine requirements to meet demand. Three scenarios were at one time of day would be used by other airlines' passengers tested. Table A-8. Summary of check-in position requirements: Airport A two-step process (source: TransSolutions, LLC). Number of Positions Type of Positions Scenario 1 Scenario 2 Scenario 3 Positions Dedicated to Today's Common Use Process-based Each Airline Full-service counters 9 8 5 Self-service device 6 5 5 Self-service bag drop 6 5 6 Table A-9. Summary of check-in position requirements: Airport B one-step process (source: TransSolutions, LLC). Number of Positions Type of Positions Scenario 1 Scenario 2 Scenario 3 Positions Dedicated to Today's Common Use Process-based Each Airline Full-service counters 17 15 10 Self-service device 52 41 37 Table A-10. Summary of check-in position requirements: Airport B two-step process (source: TransSolutions, LLC). Number of Positions Type of Positions Scenario 1 Scenario 2 Scenario 3 Positions Dedicated to Today's Common Use Process-based Each Airline Full-service counters 17 15 10 Self-service device 15 13 8 Self-service bag drop 29 24 20

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69 Table A-11. Passenger and baggage "first contact" locations (source: TransSolutions, LLC). Location Passengers Baggage Airline 1 Other Airlines Airline 1 Other Airlines Curbside 7.3% 17.4% 21.4% 20.1% ATO 41.1 73.3 78.6 76.6 Kiosk 0.0 5.6 0.0 3.3 Gate 51.6 3.7 N/A N/A ATO = Airline Ticket Office; N/A = Not applicable 1. Scenario 1: 8 bag-drop positions using a 60%/20%/20% POV passengers with no check bags park, then 20% use split: full-service check-in, while the other 80% obtain board- 60% of POV passengers with check baggage proceed to ing passes at an SSD or proceed directly to the SSCP. the bag-check plaza, then park. 20% of POV passengers with check baggage are dropped The process evaluated in the simulation modeling off at the curbside first to use full-service check-in, then included passengers parking their vehicles in available park. spaces, unloading their check bag(s), and walking to the 20% of POV passengers with check baggage park, then self-service bag-drop position to check their bag(s). After use full-service check-in. check-in, the passengers walk back to their vehicles and POV passengers with no check bags park, then 20% use drive away to park. full-service check-in, while the other 80% obtain board- ing passes at an SSD or proceed directly to the SSCP. Assumptions 2. Scenario 2: 8 bag-drop positions using a 40%/40%/20% split: Table A-11 shows the locations where passengers/baggage 40% of POV passengers with check baggage proceed to first come into contact with airline staff for check-in. "Airline 1" the bag-check plaza, then park. is a low-cost carrier with different characteristics than the 40% of POV passengers with check baggage are dropped other airlines. The "gate" location represents passengers who off at the curbside first to use full-service check-in, then checked-in through the Internet prior to arrival at the terminal. park. Table A-12 shows the average check-in processing times 20% of POV passengers with check baggage park, then by passenger class and location. The same processing time use full-service check-in. distribution was used for the bag-check plaza and curbside POV passengers with no check bags park, then 20% use check-in. full-service check-in, while the other 80% obtain board- ing passes at an SSD or proceed directly to the SSCP. Description of Simulation Models 3. Scenario 3: 12 bag-drop positions using a 60%/20%/20% split: The departure peak-hour operations include 11 departing 60% of POV passengers with check baggage proceed to flights with 1,192 enplaned passengers. Four airlines operate the bag-check plaza, then park. at this terminal, including one low-cost carrier. The terminal 20% of POV passengers with check baggage are dropped has an average of 1.4 passengers per group, with an average off at the curbside first to use full-service check-in, then of 1.3 checked bags per passenger group. Originating passen- park. gers arrive at the airport on average 90 min prior to departure 20% of POV passengers with check baggage park, then for flights scheduled before 8:30 A.M. and 110 min prior to de- use full-service check-in. parture for flights scheduled after 8:30 A.M. Table A-12. Average check-in processing times by passenger class and check-in location (source: TransSolutions, LLC). Average Processing Time (minutes) Passenger Class/Location Airline 11 Other Airlines First/business class 2.6 Coach 2.3 3.7 Curbside 3.2 3.2 1 Airline 1 is a low-cost carrier and does not offer first/business class check-in.

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70 Table A-13. Transportation mode distribution Table A-13 shows the transportation mode distribution (source: TransSolutions, LLC). used in the model. Table A-14 shows the distribution of the first point-of-contact locations for POVs. Table A-15 shows Transportation Mode Percent Private car 77.1 the distribution of parking facilities used by passengers that Rental car 14.4 arrive at the airport by POV and park. Table A-16 shows the Taxicab 2.3 distribution of private vehicle load and unload times at the Limousine 1.0 airport. This distribution times will be used only for passengers Door-to-door van 2.8 Hotel/motel courtesy vehicle 2.3 using the bag-check plaza. Chartered bus 0.1 Results Table A-17 shows the total time passengers would be in the Table A-14. Private vehicle first point-of-contact bag-check plaza, the maximum number of parking spaces locations (source: TransSolutions, LLC). needed for vehicles in the bag-check plaza, the number of Location of First Point of Contact Percent check-in positions, and the average numbers of vehicles per To the curb, then exit 48.9 position for the three scenarios. The analysis shows that To the curb, then off-airport parking 0.8 increasing the number of positions by 50% (from 8 to To the curb, then parking or rental car return 2.9 12 positions) would reduce the time spent in the bag-check To parking or rental car return 47.4 plaza and the number of vehicles waiting in the queue. Scenario 1 would not provide the number of bag-drop positions to effectively meet demand. Scenarios 2 and 3 Table A-15. Private vehicle parking facility would both meet demand, providing acceptable times for this distribution (source: TransSolutions, LLC).* check-in process. Of the 6.6 min, on average, passengers Parking Facility Percent would spend in the bag-check plaza, processing accounts for Terminal 67.5 just over 6 min--unloading from the vehicle, walking to the Airport remote 18.0 bag-check position, checking in, walking back to the vehicle, Off-airport 2.3 and loading into the vehicle. Only 30 sec of the average bag- *The remaining 12.2% are private vehicles that do not utilize on-airport check plaza time were spent waiting or queuing. parking facilities. Inside the terminal check-in hall, the maximum passenger queues would be reduced by 50% or more. Meanwhile, the tra- ditional curbside check-in queues would be similarly reduced. Table A-16. Average Vehicle load/unload times at To serve the 1,200 enplaning passengers with 77% in POVs, the bag-check plaza (source: TransSolutions, LLC). 8 bag-check positions would be adequate if 40% of the POVs Average Load/Unload Time use the bag-check plaza. If the bag-check plaza use increases Bag-check Plaza to 60%, then 12 positions would be required. For each check- (seconds) Private vehicle load time 96.5 in position, approximately four or five parking spaces should Private vehicle unload time 76.2 be provided for vehicle staging. Table A-17. Bag-check plaza summary (source: TransSolutions, LLC). Scenario (Share of Time in Bag-check Plaza passengers using bag- (minutes) Maximum Parking Number of Average Vehicles check plaza/number Spaces Needed Positions per Position of positions) Average 95th% Max. Scenario 1 (60%/8) 24.24 53.0 72.2 146 8 19 Scenario 2 (40%/8) 6.6 11.7 21.7 36 8 5 Scenario 3 (60%/12) 6.6 11.7 24.3 51 12 5