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20 Shared Use of Railroad Infrastructure with Noncompliant Public Transit Rail Vehicles: A Practitioner's Guide 8. Where all freight operations can be shifted into the overnight period, a temporal separation approach to shared operations is adopted; where the volume of freight service, the needs of freight customers or the sensibilities of neighboring residents prevents overnight freight oper- ation, an investment in train control technology that features "fail-safe train separation" is required to ensure that human failure does not result in a collision between a light passenger car and heavier freight rolling stock. A wide variety of technologies are available to provide this extra margin of safety. Strategic elements of the business model should be quantified as parameters for a project spe- cific business case. Table 3 displays a checklist of key issues and suggested resolutions that have previously shown to be acceptable to both the transit agency and the railroad. The Business Case A business case is a tool that supports planning and decision making, including major investment decisions. Business cases are generally designed to answer the question: what will be the financial consequences of each choice among multiple options? A good business case shows expected economic consequences of the decision over time and includes the rationale for quantifying benefits and costs. Critical success factors and significant risks are discussed. The case also describes the overall impact of a proposal in terms that can be understood by policy makers. Business cases can range from the comprehensive and highly structured, as required by for- mal project management methodologies, to the informal and brief. Information included in a formal business case could be the background of the project, expected business benefits, options considered (with reasons for rejecting or carrying forward each option), the expected costs of the Table 3. Recommended business model parameters for shared track. Business Issue Transit Agency Freight Railroad Track Ownership Purchases, improves, and assumes Sells and relinquishes control control Track Pays all costs and defines standards Identifies needs for continued freight Maintenance subject to FRA regulation; define service; define limits of freight limits of agency ownership ownership Track Access Manages freight and passenger Perpetual and exclusive trackage schedule interactions rights, subject to per-use fee Liability Assumes all risks over and above Provides suitable insurance for own the old status quo employees and operations Capital Financing Uses traditional public transit Pays for freight-specific financing mechanisms improvements on an incremental basis Incident Leads the incident site and recovery Assists as necessary if freight Management effort equipment is involved Operating Rules Maintains railroad-like rules for Coordinates with transit agency and both freight and passenger FRA to identify rules necessary to operations preserve and operate freight service Employee Trains transit employees and Trains freight employees for Training provides cross-training where operation on transit territory needed Emergency Retrieves disabled passenger Retrieves disabled freight equipment Recovery equipment and evacuate passengers so that transit service can resume Labor Laws Avoids rail labor laws Operates under railroad labor laws Command and Combined Command-and-Control system with either temporal separation Control or "fail-safe train separation"