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Enabling Shared-Track: Technology, Command, and Control 39 D. User Interface: A user initiates a control action or responds to the captured information via an interface device (e.g., a control panel). Most displays involve a graphic user interface (GUI) and include alarms (continuous or one time). GUI can be a touch screen, keyboard, or mouse. Typically all information displayed and responses are recorded on a data base for retrieval, should it be necessary. Generally two independent data storage and retrieval sys- tems are provided for redundancy, as are multiple monitors. 5) Communications Systems for Shared-Track A single communications center as a hub for Command and Control is essential for the shared-track operation. Given the fundamentals of the railroad communications system, what guidelines should influence the choices for a shared-track operation? The operator should weigh the factors that affect technical selections, such as capital costs, maintenance costs, personnel skills, proprietary systems, expandability for growth, and adapt- ability to technical progress, as well as reliability, redundancy, practical user friendliness, band width, and frequencies. Some benefits or capabilities are considerably more appealing to passenger operations, and safety issues loom larger where passengers are involved. Clearly any shared-track operations will require a working radio on trains and work equipment, for designated personnel, and a redun- dant capability. Communications with passengers and with a Control Center are not new to rail transit systems. Coordinating transit operations with a freight carrier and developing and using joint communications protocols will be new. A unique design or advanced technology is not required for shared-track. Conventional systems properly applied are sufficient. Command and Control Systems: Rules and Procedures 1) Purpose Rules and Procedures (R&P) were created to manage the operation of railroads and transit systems. They are published in a rulebook and other ancillary documents, and issued to desig- nated employees. Most follow a standard format and topical coverage, although they are tailored to the individual line or system. Passenger and freight R&P are different. Whatever the choice of train control, communications technologies, and capabilities, integration with R&P completes the framework of C&C. First and foremost R&P are about safety. The significance of human factors in accidents is not lost on the railroad and transit sectors. Thus, R&P remain fundamental to all passenger and freight operations. They: Provide needed redundancy in the event of equipment failures; Complement and compensate for the limitations of technology; and Provide a prioritized set of operating protocols critical to assuring the safety of shared-track operations, but are not entirely dependent upon train control technology. 2) Regulatory Mandates The crucial importance of operating R&P in shared-track operations is recognized by the FRA in 49 CFR Part 211, which details the FRA policy with respect to shared-track. Directly applica- ble to Command and Control systems, the FRA specifically requires the freight and passenger operations to be capable of communicating directly and adhering to common operating rules where track is shared. Other relevant regulations include 49 CFR Part 214 Railroad Workplace