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40 Shared Use of Railroad Infrastructure with Noncompliant Public Transit Rail Vehicles: A Practitioner's Guide Safety, Part 217 Railroad Operating Rules, Part 218 Railroad Operating Practices, Part 225 Rail- road Accident and Incident Reporting. 3) Rules and Procedures--Practical Considerations Both freight and passenger operator must be under the authority of the same control center, preferably managed by the passenger operator. The control center must be able to communicate with train crews, MOW crews, supervisors, and maintenance of equipment (MOE) personnel and vice versa. In the case of shared-track operations, freight crews and other personnel must be able to communicate with the passenger control center and be trained and conversant in their R&P. In a shared-track environment, the day-to-day operation encompasses the four likely scenarios over a typical service day or during special operations. A. Shared-track operation of light passenger rail cars movements commingled on the same track where freight movements occur; B. Parallel movements involving light passenger rail cars on one track and a freight train on an adjacent track; C. Exclusive use by either the light passenger rail cars or the freight equipment; D. Transitional periods when passenger service is starting or ending, in conjunction with freight period ending or starting. Different rules and procedures for freight and passenger operations when combined for freight and passenger traffic in a commingled operation must accommodate those four scenarios as well as some unique to each mode: Freight operations. Train control system, communication protocols, speed, train length, cargo, drill operations, train inspections, shifted loads, fouling of main tracks, close clearances, and accident/incident response; and Passenger operations. Train control system, communication protocols, pre-departure safety inspections, schedule, speed, changing ends, terminal activities, passenger conduct and rela- tions, station stopping, movements at grade crossings, hazardous condition alerts and accident/ incident response. In most cases rule books are issued to employees, who receive training, and then are responsi- ble to learn the rules, keep up-to-date with changes, and have the books on or near their person at all times while working. To contribute to safety, R&P also serve these purposes. Governance: Specify the duties of operating and maintenance employees and direct their actions in any situation that may arise while they are operating trains or controlling or affected by train movements. Regulatory conformance: Fulfill regulatory requirements. Acknowledge limitations: Recognize the limitations of technology and human capabilities and behavior, and compensate for these shortcomings. Supplement train control systems: They are designed to address circumstances not accommo- dated in the train control system and failures of technology, and to provide safe work arounds for most eventualities. 4) The Rulebook The ideal system of R&P will provide movement authority for all foreseeable situations. Rail- road-based rules and procedures are preferred as the nucleus, for a rulebook that provides: Sufficient and appropriate content for the nature of the operation; Adequate management resources to staff, train, and monitor application and enforcement of R&P;