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58 Shared Use of Railroad Infrastructure with Noncompliant Public Transit Rail Vehicles: A Practitioner's Guide Figure 5. NJ Transit DMU Street running in Camden, NJ. can use a radial mainline railway for line-haul transport from the suburbs, and then continue or switch to local street-running tracks to serve the downtown destinations, and other routing options are possible. Historically nearly all SPRCs have used on-board diesel engines for power, and have been capable of operation as a train with a single train or with multiple cars. SPRCs are commonly called DMUs. Additional economic advantages of concurrent track sharing can be realized if: There is an identified need to integrate transit service in a shared-track corridor with an exist- ing light rail system; Street running is necessary to access downtown districts and serve dispersed demands within a larger city; emergency stopping distances are more compatible with street running; There are community concerns about the noise, vibration, and visual impact of large commuter rail vehicles; and The selected rail car whether LRV and SPRC is able to perform express, line-speed line-haul functions on railroad tracks, and local multi-stop distribution functions on embedded street tracks with mixed vehicular traffic. Service Characteristics to Justify the Choice of a Light Rail System Concurrent shared-track with light rail and conventional railroad vehicles is typically con- sidered a fall-back option after it has been determined that the service requirements cannot be satisfied with FRA compliant passenger vehicles or a separate light rail system. It may then become necessary to conduct a feasibility study. If such a study concludes that a light rail sys- tem is the only viable alternative to satisfy local transit needs, then a shared-track project may be justifiable. The research for such a study should address four elements. 1. The travel forecasts. The rail transit should reach downtown to serve its primary market. 2. The pattern of development in downtown necessitates a street running transit service with stops at dispersed demand generators. In downtown, transit service also should support redevelop- ment objectives by improving mobility within the core. 3. The possibility of constructing a commuter railroad is an option that should be explored although such an alternative may be fraught with difficulties, high costs, and considered infeasible. a. All current FRA-compliant equipment is 85' long and has a minimum turning radius of 12 degrees (approximately 145 m or 480 feet radius). Constructing a suitable alignment at grade would necessitate substantial encroachment to traffic or land uses adjacent or prox- imate to the right-of-way, and may represent an unacceptable level of interference and dis- turbance to the local environment.