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Shared-Track: A Handbook of Examples and Applications 63 of ASC systems must be done on a case-by-case basis, factoring in such variables as number of interlockings, vehicles to be equipped, track miles, and what other systems are in use regionally for interoperability reasons. Research emphasizes that it is preferable and less costly to use commercial-off-the-shelf sys- tems and components rather than advanced state-of-the-art technology. Highly advanced train control systems are not justified by the service application or benefits. System Capital Cost Assessment Railroad capital construction costs are generally estimated in categories. An example of a cost- ing methodology that can be used breaks the costs into six main categories. Roadbed, track, and special trackwork; Structures; Stations; Signals and communications; Engineering design, project management, and contingency (soft costs); and Vehicle and support facilities. Costs not explicitly accounted for in this costing methodology include: real estate acquisi- tion costs, allowance for planning studies and permitting, and various ancillary costs such as concessions to pacify certain route abutters. More detail for each category is provided in the Task 10 Report. Table 13 illustrates a summary cost format for each option. Soft costs are identified by shading. Detailed estimates for each work item appear in the Appendix to this report. While the actual amounts generated in the research example may not be directly transferable to all situations, some proportions may be reasonably extrapolated to similar circumstances, particularly if the methodology is duplicated. 1. The costs of planning, permitting, real estate, and right-of-way purchase can have a signifi- cant effect on the program. 2. The cost of adding the signal system for concurrent single-track operation (Option 3) is about 8% more than for a signal system for temporal separation (Option 1). The infrastructure for shared track is significantly less than for a stand-alone light rail transit system. The sig- nal system for a two-track concurrent operation (Option 4) is the most expensive of all Table 13. Worksheet 6--Capital costs for initiating transit service. Option 1 2 3 4 Strict Spatial Concurrent Concurrent Operating Regime Temporal Separation Single Track Double Track Separation Roadbed, Track, and Special Trackwork Structures (Railway and Highway) Stations Signals and Communications Engineering Design and Project Management Contingency Vehicles and Support Facilities Total