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15 2.3 Identification of Sources Table 2-1. Example of inventory categories and Pollutants showing specific sources. As suggested previously, the sources to be included in an Source Category Specific Source airport GHG inventory will depend on the purpose of the Ground (reflecting taxi-idle, delay) Ground to 3,000 ft (reflecting takeoff, inventory. If the purpose is a climate action plan, then-- Aircraft and APU climbout, and approach) typically--all sources under the ownership and control of the Above 3,000 ft airport operator are identified, as well as those owned by ten- Aircraft engine tests Emissions may be reported in aggregate, ants. This is in keeping with the community approach from but data collection requires knowledge ICLEI's boundary guidance. For NEPA-like project evalua- of different types of GSE used by airport tions and sustainability projects, the airport operator typi- GSE operators (snow removal, maintenance equipment, etc.) versus tenants (baggage cally has the flexibility to narrow the sources inventoried to tractors, belt loaders, cabin service those affected by the project. trucks, etc.) The starting point for identifying the affected airport sources Vehicles transporting passengers (private autos, taxis, vans, shuttles, is to first list all six sources that have traditionally been cited rental cars, etc.), and vehicles using for criteria gases and are consistent with the sources listed in airport parking Parking Facilities and Vehicles transporting airport and tenant the FAA's AEDT/EDMS (FAAa 2007): (1.) aircraft (in the LTO Roadways (GAV) employees, including vehicles in cycle) and APU, (2.) GSE, (3.) stationary sources, (4.) parking employee parking lots facilities and roadways (also represented by GAV), (5.) train- Vehicles transporting cargo ing fires, and (6.) construction activities. Airport-owned vehicles Airport facility boilers, heaters, and Each of these sources should be considered relative to the generators party who owns/controls the source. For example, airport Stationary Fuels used by food concessions Sources/Facility Power operators would be likely to focus on airport-owned GSE, Maintenance activities stationary sources, fire training, and construction. Only if an Electrical consumption airport operator owns and controls aircraft would aircraft Training Fires Fuel usage for planned training activities and APU emissions be associated with the airport operator. Vehicles consuming fuels during the Construction construction process Rather, aircraft emissions generally would be associated with Waste Management Waste recycled, waste landfilled, etc. tenants, along with APUs, GSE, tenant-based GAVs, etc. All other sources such as local on- Although this list is comprehensive overall, it is not spe- Other airport companies with industrial processes, farming activities, etc. cific to every source at an airport. For example, the station- ary sources category covers a wide range of specific sources (e.g., boiler/heater, maintenance activities, engine tests, etc.) that could be listed individually depending on the needs of Level 1 inventory that only considers CO2; the airport operator or project. Further, for purposes of a Level 2 inventory (recommended) that considers six Kyoto GHG inventory, the stationary sources would also include ac- pollutants (CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6, HFC, and PFC)--primary counting for electrical use (also called facility power). To pro- pollutants; and vide consistency to both the criteria pollutant inventories and Level 3 inventory that considers all pollutants including the airport GHG inventories, the Guidebook recommends that six Kyoto pollutants, precursors and any others exerting a the above six categories be preserved. Airports would have the GHG effect. flexibility to include more specific sources under those cate- gories as exemplified in Table 2-1. Two additional cate- At a minimum, CO2 emissions (Level 1) must be quanti- gories--waste management (recycling) and other (a catch-all fied to form a GHG inventory. If resources and data allow, all category for emissions unique to an airport)--are included attempts should be made to quantify the Kyoto pollutants in Table 2-1 that are not generally found in criteria pollutant (the primary pollutants) called out in Level 2. Although six inventories. pollutants are noted, it is likely that a Level 2 inventory would Once the sources are identified, the availability of data be dominated by CO2 with lesser levels of CH4 and N2O. In and resources will need to be assessed to determine the pol- part because of data availability and understanding of these lutants to be accounted for in the inventory. Based on guid- emissions, the focus for Level 2 is usually on these three pol- ance provided by WRI and IPCC, as well as experience airport lutants. This level is consistent with GHG inventory protocols operators have gained from developing GHG inventories, it identified by IPCC, WRI, ICLEI, and TCR. As such, a Level 2 is recommended that the following levels of pollutant cate- inventory is the recommended level for an airport inven- gories be used as a guide: tory. Level 3 is an alternate, and includes both precursors and