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17 Table 2-2. Example of ownership categorization layer. Owning/Controlling Source Scope Entity Aircraft (only aircraft owned by the airport operator; a few Scope 1 airport operators fly aircraft that they own) APU Scope 1 GSE Scope 1 Airport Operator GAV Scope 1 Scope 1 (electricity Stationary Sources consumed in Scope 2) Fire Training Scope 1 Construction Scope 1 Waste Recycling Scope 3 Other Scope 1/2/3 Aircraft Scope 3 APU Scope 3 Tenant (includes GSE Scope 3 airlines, government, GAV Scope 3 concessionaires, aircraft operators, fixed-based Stationary Sources Scope 3 operators, etc.) Construction Scope 3 Waste Recycling Scope 3 Other Scope 3 Public GAV Scope 3 For aircraft, it is recommended that emissions from the full As an option, the WRI scope categories could be flight (gate-to-gate) should be accounted for if sufficient in- specified to allow a better understanding of the formation is available. Volume 2, Chapter 3 of the IPCC (2006) direct and indirect nature of the emissions. guidelines indicate that aircraft GHG emissions should be attributed to the departure country. This Guidebook recog- nizes that many approaches are available--ranging from not 2.5 Geographic Boundaries including aircraft in the inventory to including both the arrival and departure-related emissions in each airport's inventory. Since the effect of GHG emissions is global in nature, there However, in keeping with the IPCC international protocol, are no "airport boundaries" in a true geographic sense as this Guidebook recommends that each flight's emissions be there are for criteria pollutants. The emissions from airport attributed to the departure airport only. If all airports take sources identified in Section 2.4 should be accounted for irre- this approach, this will provide consistency with each airport's spective of where they occur. This means that in addition inventory, avoid double counting, and allow individual air- to accounting for emissions that occur on airport property port inventories to be compared with, or aggregated to, larger (e.g., GSE, stationary sources, etc.), emissions from sources scale inventories such as state inventories or USEPA's na- owned or influenced by the airport should also be included tional inventory. This approach is the preferred approach for whether or not they occur on airport property or near the aircraft, because--if uniformly applied--it avoids double airport (e.g., as is the case for autos traveling to and from counting. the airport). Judgment is required for some sources as to the Where possible, aircraft emissions should be assessed by extent of the airport's level of influence for purposes of achiev- individual legs of a flight rather than the departure and final ing a policy-relevant inventory. All of the sources listed in Sec- destination of multi-leg flights. For instance, emissions from a tion 2.4, however, are considered to be either controlled or in- flight that leaves JFK to fly to ORD, then to DEN, and then to fluenced by the airport. Designating sources by ownership and SFO, should be attributed as shown below and in Figure 2-2. control is recommended to further assist with the inventory. Emissions of flight from JFK to ORD should be attributed Unlike the health effects associated with criteria to JFK, gases, GHG effects are global in nature and, hence, Emissions of flight from ORD to DEN should be attrib- it does not matter where those emissions occur-- uted to ORD, and ALL of the emissions must be accounted for. Emissions of flight from DEN to SFO should be attributed to DEN.