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2 Step 1 Chapter 1 Review Background Information The Kyoto Protocol is one of the underlying drivers for the development of airport GHG emissions inventories. Step 2 Chapter 2 Inventory Development Considerations While the Kyoto target included domestic air travel- related emissions, emissions from international aviation were specifically excluded from the targets agreed upon under the Kyoto Protocol. Instead, countries were encouraged to con- Step 3 trol international aviation-related emissions through the ac- Chapter 3 Calculate Emissions tivities of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). ICAO's Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP) continues to consider the potential for using market-based mechanisms and has formed the Group Step 4 Chapter 3 on International Aviation and Climate Change (GIACC) to Calculate CO2 Equivalencies develop an aggressive program on international aviation and climate change. Figure 1-1. Overall procedure for The United States has not ratified the Kyoto Protocol and developing an airport GHG emissions has yet to develop federal legislation to regulate GHG emis- inventory. sions. In lieu of federal legislative mandates, various U.S. cor- porations, nonprofits, and local governments have engaged in largely voluntary measures to quantify and reduce GHG to develop such inventories and explanations for the use of emissions. This includes U.S. efforts such as the Mayors Cli- certain methods and metrics. In addition, the Guidebook is mate Protection Agreement to promote the goals of the intended to provide background reasons for the development Kyoto Protocol, and the establishment of regional and national of these inventories, including the potential benefits thereof. registries, such as The Climate Registry (TCR), to provide a Both the scientific understanding and policies to address formalized voluntary mechanism for developing, submitting, climate change are quickly evolving. Thus, certain parts of and tracking of corporate-based GHG emissions. this Guidebook may need to be updated in the future to reflect changes in the understanding of the impacts of emissions on climate or as improved methods to calculate those emissions In lieu of a national program to quantify and become available. Further, as future regulations and proto- control emissions, regional and local initiatives cols are enacted, the Guidebook will need to be updated to ac- have been developed. count for these changes. Thus, the Guidebook represents a liv- ing document that is expected to be updated periodically. In addition to these voluntary actions, some state and local legislative measures have been enacted requiring inventories 1.2 Regulatory Considerations and establishing emission reduction goals. The most significant On an international level, the driving force behind the con- of these legislative mandates is the California Global Warming trol of GHG emissions has been the Kyoto Protocol (UN 1998) Solutions Act, which is also known as Assembly Bill 32 (AB32). and local action. The protocol is a supplementary agreement Passed in 2006, it charges the California Air Resources Board to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate (CARB) with developing a comprehensive GHG emissions Change (UNFCCC). Negotiated in Japan in 1997, the proto- reduction plan for California through 2020. It is the first law col came into full force on February 16, 2005, 90 days after the in the United States to cap emission levels from major indus- ratification of at least 55 countries that represented at least tries, as well as to require certain facilities to report their emis- 55% of 1990 global CO2 emission levels. As of February 4, sions, which, in this case, are reported to the California Cli- 2008, 176 parties (175 countries and the European Economic mate Action Registry (CCAR). Community [EEC]) had ratified the protocol. Countries that To reinforce their climate action plans, several states ratify the Kyoto Protocol commit to reduce their emissions of have a state-based law similar to the National Environmental CO2 and five other greenhouse gases, or engage in emissions Policy Act (NEPA)--sometimes called mini-NEPAs--that trading if they maintain or increase emissions of these gases. now requires the preparation of GHG inventories. The