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30 Technology- Utilities emissions are reported based on the Stationary Source Specific Emission Fuel Consumption party receiving the invoice for the utility (natu- Factors and Other Data Data as Necessary ral gas, purchased electricity, etc.). Appropriate conversion units may need to be applied de- Calculate pending on the units of the fuel consumption values and the emission factors used. The activity/fuel data should be mul- tiplied by an emission factor. Emission factors can be ob- tained from sources such as the USEPA and EIA. Some ex- Stationary Source GHG Emissions amples of average emission factors are Figure 3-11. Overview of Airport Btu--British thermal units Facility Combustion Method 2. mmBtu--Million Btu TJ--Tera joules calculation procedures as in Method 1 but using technology- GJ--Giga joules specific emission factors as indicated in Figure 3-11. ft3--Cubic feet The stationary source fuel consumption data can be obtained from various fuel purchase or financial records and should be separated by sources owned by the airport operator versus · Natural gas (U.S. average) = 53.06 kg CO2/mmBtu fuel those owned by tenants. For locations where purchased nat- (TCRa 2008 and USEPAb 2008), ural gas or electrical records are not absolutely clear as to the · Natural gas (U.S. average) = 120.593 lbs CO2/1,000 ft3 fuel quantities that are the responsibility of the airport operator (EIA 2008), versus that of the tenants, the following guidance is provided: · Natural gas for commercial/institutional purposes = Any invoices for purchased electricity received by the air- 56,100 kg CO2/TJ fuel (IPCC 2006), port operator, even if directly metered to a tenant, are the · Natural gas for commercial/institutional purposes = 5 g responsibility of the airport operator and thus those emis- CH4/GJ fuel (USEPAb 2008), sions should be categorized under the airport-owned cat- · Natural gas for commercial/institutional purposes = 0.1 g egory. If invoices are received by the tenant and the airport N2O/GJ fuel (USEPAb 2008), can either gain access to tenant electrical consumption or an · Natural gas for commercial/institutional purposes = 5 kg estimate can be made of the tenant electricity/energy usage, the CH4/TJ fuel (IPCC 2006), and associated emissions should be categorized under the "tenant- · Natural gas for commercial/institutional purposes = 0.1 kg owned" category. In any case, these emissions should all be in- N2O/TJ fuel (IPCC 2006). cluded as part of an airport GHG inventory. As noted earlier, airport-owned emissions resulting from purchased electricity The following is an example calculation using 200,000 mil- should be classified as Scope 2 emissions, whereas tenant pur- lion therms of natural gas usage: chased electricity should be classified as Scope 3 emissions. Appropriate conversion units may need to be applied de- The 200,000 million therms equates to 20,000 0 mmBtu using a pending on the units of the fuel consumption values and the Btu therm . conversion factor of 0.1 mmB emission factors used. Emission factors can be obtained from sources such as USEPA's Technology Transfer Network (TTN) Therefore, CO2 emissions = ( 20, 000 mmBtu ) (USEPAd 2008), Annex 2 of the USEPA's 2008 GHG inventory × (53.06 kg CO2 mmBtu ) = 1.061 million kg CO2 . report (USEPAb 2008) and IPCC Volume 2, Chapter 2 of the This equates to 1,061 metric tons of CO2 when using 2006 guidelines (IPCC 2006). The inventory developer must a conversion factor of 0.001 metric ton kg. make sure to use the appropriate emission factors for each technology and operating condition. 3.5.2 Stationary Source Combustion Activities--Method 2 3.5.3 Electricity Usage (Utility Purchases) In keeping with the IPCC Tier 3 method for stationary This section covers indirect emissions (Scope 2) resulting combustion, the Method 2 presented herein involves the same from electricity used by the airport (electricity not generated