Cover Image

Not for Sale

View/Hide Left Panel
Click for next page ( 32

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001

Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement

Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 31
31 Emission Factor The overall method is based on material balancing of the Electricity Use (e.g., kWh) from EPA's eGRID emissions taking into account the charging, operating, and or Local Source disposal of refrigerants. The USEPA Climate Leader's simpli- fied view of the emission factors and related parameters is pre- sented in Table 2 of their Refrigeration and Air Conditioning emissions guidance document (USEPAc 2008). The inventory Calculate developer will need to determine if this method is warranted and the corresponding data are appropriate for the airport. Although IPCC (2006) provides methods to predict emis- GHG Emissions sions of SF6 from industrial-type activities such as electronics from Indirect etching, cleaning, and temperature control applications, these Electricity Use are not typical activities at an airport. The methods and data Figure 3-12. Overview of indirect necessary for predicting emissions of SF6 from these types of GHG emissions calculations from activities can be found in Volume 3 (Industrial Processes and airport electricity use. Product Use) from the IPCC 2006 guidelines (IPCC 2006). The inventory developer needs to determine if any of these by the airport). Any emissions from electricity generated by activities occur at the airport, and if so, use the appropriate the airport through combustion of fuel should be categorized methods and data to determine the associated SF6 emissions. under Section 3.5.1 or 3.5.2. As shown in Figure 3-12, the Also, IPCC provides a mass balance method to account for SF6 method for calculating emissions from non-airport-generated emissions from electricity transmission that is consistent with electricity involves using electricity consumption (energy con- the method from the USEPA's Emission Reduction Partner- sumption) information with the appropriate emission factor. ship for Electric Power Systems. However, this method is not With electricity usage generally reported in kilowatt hours intended for use by an entity that uses the electricity; rather, (kWh), emission factors from local utility providers or from it is intended for the entity that owns the transmission lines. USEPA's eGRID system are recommended (USEPAf 2007). Hence, no SF6 emissions from electricity transmission lines Airports are suggested to use local factors if available to ensure can feasibly be allocated to airports at this time. consistency of local inventories. In lieu of local factors, the For the other pollutants in Level 3 (beyond the six Kyoto USEPA's model should be used. The eGRID emission factors pollutants), AEDT/EDMS (FAAa 2007) provides coverage of are typically in lbs CO2 per MWh (megawatt hours). a wide range of pollutants (e.g., CO, NOx, VOC, etc.) for var- The following is an example calculation with 300,000 kWh ious stationary sources. The USEPA's eGRID also provides of electricity use: emission factors for SO2 and NOx. In addition, if the fuel com- position is known or estimated, a mass balance could be con- CO2 emissions = ( 300, 000 kWh ) (1, 388 lbs CO2 MWh ducted to derive emission factors for H2O and SOx (modeled for Georgia 2004 ) (1 MWh 1,000 kWh ) as SO2) as indicated in Appendix C. = 416,400 lbs CO2 . This equates to 188.9 metric tons when using a conversion factor of 04536 metric ton lb. 0.000 3.6 Waste Management Activities Most airports have implemented waste management activ- Emission factors for CH4 and N2O are also available from ities designed to recycle various forms of waste. These activi- the USEPA's Climate Leaders in Appendix B of their Indirect ties produce GHG emission reductions when contrasted with Emissions from Purchased/Sold Electricity guidance docu- activities that do not recycle. The emissions associated with ment (USEPAa 2004). Based on fuel use data from eGRID, the USEPA developed emission factors for these pollutants. waste reduction-related equipment owned and operated by airport operators should be captured in the stationary source methodologies discussed previously (see Section 3.5). This 3.5.4 Other Pollutants section discusses capturing the GHG emission reduction as- For HFC and PFC, IPCC provides methods to derive emis- sociated with lifecycle-related waste management activities. sions for these pollutants based on default parameters related Few methodologies exist to capture the lifecycle emissions to air conditioning and refrigeration. The IPCC methods can benefits associated with waste management activities. It is be found in Volume 3, Chapter 7 of the IPCC 2006 guidelines recommended that airport inventories not attempt to capture (IPCC 2006). Both the USEPA Climate Leaders (USEPAc 2008) the full lifecycle emissions benefits associated with waste and TCR (TCRa 2008) provide simplified explanations and management activity, especially reduction-related activities. emission factors based on the same information from IPCC. Rather, only the direct emissions from energy necessary to