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4 and not specific to local (e.g., airport) sources. To aid with cludes all sources while other inventories may be subsets of the national inventory, USEPA has developed GHG guidance these same sources. The following sections provide a brief to the states for the preparation of inventories based on a overview of these inventory reasons and their needs. "top-down" approach and commented that such inventories ". . . may not be appropriate for use at a scale other than the 1.4.1 Climate Change Initiatives-- state level . . ." (USEPAh 2007) Simultaneously, local juris- Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals dictions (counties, cities, and individual airport operators) are beginning to prepare GHG inventories, and without a Most often, inventories developed as part of climate change standard protocol for use at these smaller scales, these inven- initiatives are used to identify sources of emissions, recognize tories cannot be compared with one another. their contribution to regional, state, local, or national inven- When beginning to develop a GHG inventory, considera- tories, and then form the basis for examining ways to reduce tion must be given to the purpose for preparing the inven- emissions. Included in this category are inventories prepared tory. The purpose will likely dictate the sources to be evaluated for purposes of climate action registries, such as TCR, the and data that are available. Although there are numerous California Climate Action Registry (CCAR), and the Eastern reasons why an airport operator might prepare an inventory, Climate Registry (ECR). The following general characteristics generally, these reasons can be grouped into the following are typical of inventories performed in response to climate four categories: action initiatives: 1. Climate change initiatives--GHG reduction goals (climate · Currently voluntary--In future years it is expected that the action plan), USEPA will establish a required emissions reporting process 2. Environmental management and sustainability programs that would fall into this category. Several city, county, re- (sustainability project plan), gional, and state action plans are encouraging submission 3. Disclosure of project/action effects (regulatory-based proj- of the inventories to a climate action registry. ect plan), and · Typically the most inclusive of sources and their emissions 4. Future regulations. of all of the inventories--Generally, inventories are segre- gated by ownership and control of the source (see Section 2.2 The few GHG airport inventories that have been developed regarding ownership and control inventory boundaries). to date appear to fall under these categories, which are pre- · Typically begin with an inventory for current-year sented in Appendix A. The general relationship among these emissions--for those whose plan includes a reduction goal, different inventory purposes is shown by source coverage in they often identify a backcast base-year's emissions (prior Figure 1-2. It is important to note that these categories are year such as 1990, 2000, or 2005) and emissions in a forecast intended to distinguish among possible types of inventories year (the year associated with the goal). It should be noted and the sources they might consider. Individual inventories that care must be taken when backcasting and/or forecasting prepared subject to these local programs may vary, and could since the data (e.g., source activities, emission factors, etc.) to overlap substantially. support these processes may not be very accurate. As shown in Figure 1-2, an inventory developed for a climate action plan or climate change initiative comprehensively in- Table 1-1 provides a framework for the structure of a cli- mate action plan inventory to enable a comparison to other inventories. It is important to note that for airport operators who are Climate Action Plan submitting their inventory to a climate action registry, reg- istries have specific reporting requirements. As noted in Appendix E, the registries typically ask for emissions sources to be reported as direct (Scope 1), indirect (Scope 2), and op- Regulatory-Based Sustainability Project Plan Project Plan tional (Scope 3). The above format would translate emissions into the registry categories in the following way: · Scope 1/direct emissions include airport operator emissions associated with (1.) fuel necessary to power airport-owned Figure 1-2. Relationship showing on- and off-road vehicles and (2.) direct energy necessary source coverage by different to power airport facilities (i.e., natural gas, fuel oil). inventory purposes. · Scope 2/indirect emissions include purchased electricity.
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5 Table 1-1. Sample climate action plan emissions inventory. Percent of CO2 Source in (metric User Percent User/Source Category Scope tons/year) Category of Total Airport Operator Owned/Controlled Stationary/facilities purchased facility power 2 30,000 51.7% 1.2% Stationary/facilities natural gas 1 10,000 17.2% 0.4% Ground support equipment/airport fleet 1 3,000 5.2% 0.1% Ground access vehicles (public vehicles on airport roads)* 3 15,000 25.9% 0.6% Total Airport Operator Owned/Controlled 58,000 100% 2.3% Airline, Aircraft Operator, or Tenant Owned/Controlled Aircraft 3 Ground 3 140,000 6.2% 5.5% Ground to 3,000 ft 3 207,000 9.2% 8.1% Above 3,000 ft (residual/cruise/APU) 3 1,890,000 84.1% 74.1% Aircraft Total 3 2,237,000 99.5% 87.7% Ground support equipment 3 6,540 0.3% 0.3% Ground access vehicles 3 1,270 0.1% 0.1% Stationary sources/facility power 3 3,000 0.1% 0.1% Total Airline, Aircraft Operator, or Tenant Owned/Controlled 2,247,810 100% 88.2% Public Owned/Controlled Public vehicles 3 175,000 71.72% 6.9% Taxis 3 34,000 13.93% 1.3% Vans/shuttles 3 23,000 9.43% 0.9% Light rail 3 Unknown na na Cargo trucks 3 12,000 4.92% 0.5% Total Public Owned/Controlled 244,000 100% 9.6% Total 2,549,810 100% Waste recycling 3 (852) Grand Total Emissions 2,548,958 *For purposes of this inventory reporting format, on-airport roadway vehicular travel-related emissions (both the emissions of/from the airport operator vehicles as well as public travel) are identified as airport operator controlled, as this infrastructure is owned and could be controlled by the airport operator. Thus, for the expanded reporting format, these sources are listed in the airport-controlled category, but are noted as Scope 3 to maintain consistency with TCR reporting formats. · Scope 3/indirect and optional emissions include (1.) tenant CCAR, TCR, and the International Council for Local Environ- emissions, (2.) public ground travel on- and off-airport, mental Initiatives (ICLEI), whether or not mandated by gov- and (3.) airport employee commute emissions. ernment or other organizations, GWPs from previous IPCC assessment reports (e.g., Second Assessment Report and Third Table 1-2 provides a sample inventory format of an inven- Assessment Report) can be used. This Guidebook recom- tory created for climate registry purposes that might be pre- mends that the documentation accompanying the inven- pared for an airport using the Scope 1, 2, and 3 categories. tory note which assessment is used and present the original Climate action registries also seek the reporting of the mass emissions by pollutant prior to the application of the following three primary GHGs: carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous GWP, as well as the resultant CO2e values. oxides (N2O), and methane (CH4). There are differing opin- ions as to how to create CO2 equivalencies (CO2e is a metric used to compare the emissions of different GHGs based upon their global warming potential, which is used to convert GHGs This Guidebook recommends use of GWPs from to CO2 equivalents.) It is recommended that global warming the latest IPCC assessment report (at this time, the potentials (GWPs) from the latest IPCC assessment report Fourth Assessment Report), noting the source of (at this time, the Fourth Assessment Report) be used to calcu- the GWPs, presenting the original mass emissions late CO2e (IPCC 2007). However, to maintain consistency with by pollutant prior to the application of the GWPs, previous inventories or to maintain consistency with other as well as the results after application. inventory development protocols such as those from the