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ACRP AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 11 Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Guidebook on Preparing Airport Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventories
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ACRP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2009 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS James Wilding CHAIR: Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Independent Consultant VICE CHAIR: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board VICE CHAIR Jeff Hamiel MEMBERS MinneapolisSt. Paul Metropolitan Airports Commission J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg MEMBERS John D. Bowe, President, Americas Region, APL Limited, Oakland, CA Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson James Crites DallasFort Worth International Airport Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Richard de Neufville Norfolk, VA Massachusetts Institute of Technology William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Kevin C. Dolliole David S. Ekern, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond Unison Consulting Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, John K. Duval Charlottesville Beverly Municipal Airport Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Kitty Freidheim Freidheim Consulting Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Steve Grossman Will Kempton, Director, California DOT, Sacramento Oakland International Airport Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Tom Jensen Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of National Safe Skies Alliance Technology, Atlanta Catherine M. Lang Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Federal Aviation Administration Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Gina Marie Lindsey Los Angeles World Airports Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Carolyn Motz Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Hagerstown Regional Airport Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Bentonville, AR Richard Tucker Rosa Clausell Rountree, Consultant, Tyrone, GA Huntsville International Airport Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando Sabrina Johnson Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Richard Marchi EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Airports Council International--North America Laura McKee Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Air Transport Association of America Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Henry Ogrodzinski Paul R. Brubaker, Research and Innovative Technology Administrator, U.S.DOT National Association of State Aviation Officials George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York Melissa Sabatine University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC American Association of Airport Executives Robert E. Skinner, Jr. Sean T. Connaughton, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT Transportation Research Board Clifford C. Eby, Acting Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the SECRETARY Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC Christopher W. Jenks Transportation Research Board John H. Hill, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC Carl T. Johnson, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT David Kelly, Acting Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Sherry E. Little, Acting Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT Thomas J. Madison, Jr., Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Robert A. Sturgell, Acting Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of November 2008. *Membership as of January 2009.
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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 11 Guidebook on Preparing Airport Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventories Brian Kim WYLE LABORATORIES, INC. Arlington, VA Ian A. Waitz CONSULTANT Newton, MA Mary Vigilante SYNERGY CONSULTANTS, INC. Seattle, WA Royce Bassarab WYLE LABORATORIES, INC. Arlington, VA Subject Areas Energy and Environment · Aviation Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2009 www.TRB.org
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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 11 Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- Project 02-06 portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter- ISSN 1935-9802 national commerce. They are where the nation's aviation system ISBN: 978-0-309-11774-6 connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon- Library of Congress Control Number 2009901774 sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most © 2009 Transportation Research Board airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera- COPYRIGHT PERMISSION tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously to meet demands placed on it. published or copyrighted material used herein. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera- acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro- the material, request permission from CRP. gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainte- nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, NOTICE and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport opera- tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary partici- Board's judgment that the project concerned is appropriate with respect to both the pants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP purposes and resources of the National Research Council. Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and to review Department of Transportation with representation from airport oper- this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration ating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical panel, they are not Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), and the Air Transport necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the Federal Aviation Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. Association (ATA) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel according to (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, Council, and the Federal Aviation Administration (sponsor of the Airport Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga- names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon- completeness of the project reporting. sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden- tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro- fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre- pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and Published reports of the selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper- AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP are available from: project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the Transportation Research Board Business Office intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service 500 Fifth Street, NW providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research Washington, DC 20001 reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work- and can be ordered through the Internet at shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. Printed in the United States of America
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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 11 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Lawrence D. Goldstein, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications ACRP PROJECT 02-06 PANEL Field of Environment Burr Stewart, Port of Seattle, WA (Chair) Howard Aylesworth, Aerospace Industries Association of America, Arlington, VA David J. Full, Reynolds, Smith, and Hills, Inc., San Francisco, CA Edward C. Knoesel, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey Sam A. Mehta, San Francisco International Airport, CA Nancy N. Young, Air Transport Association of America, Washington, DC Maryalice Locke, FAA Liaison Andrea Denny, EPA Liaison Jessica Steinhilber, ACI-NA Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison
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FOREWORD By Lawrence D. Goldstein Staff Officer Transportation Research Board ACRP Report 11: Guidebook on Preparing Airport Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventories provides a framework for identifying and quantifying specific components of airport con- tributions to greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). This guidebook can be used by airport oper- ators and others to prepare an airport-specific inventory of greenhouse gas emissions. It identifies calculation methods that can be applied consistently, improving comparability among airports and enhancing understanding of relative contributions of greenhouse gases to local environments. The inventory methods presented focus on the six primary green- house gases: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, hydrofluorocar- bons, and perfluorocarbons. As part of the methodology, the guidebook provides instructions on how to calculate emissions from specific sources and how to create carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalencies. Concerns continue to increase with respect to the potential effects of human activities on the earth's climate; and scientific studies suggest that these activities, including aviation, contribute to increasing atmospheric concentrations of GHG emissions associated with global warming. While approaches for computing noise and local air quality at the airport level are generally well established, specific guidance or generally applied practice for com- puting airport-level GHG emission inventories has not previously been available. In gen- eral, under international treaties, GHGs are addressed at a national or state level. However, responding to growing local political and community concerns, cities and counties across the country are beginning to attempt to quantify the contribution of sources within their boundaries to local and regional GHG emissions. Previously, these efforts have occurred without a common approach or structure. Based on that need, it is evident that airport oper- ators could benefit from a guidebook providing uniform methods of developing airport GHG emissions inventories. Given the level of interest regarding aviation's contribution to GHG emissions and ulti- mately to climate change, it is important that airports have information necessary to address potential concerns. On a sub-regional level, many localities have begun to develop aviation- related GHG inventories using various methods and accounting approaches. This guide- book provides a concise set of step-by-step instructions on how to generate airport GHG inventories--what sources should be included, how to calculate emissions, and how to account for the ownership and control as well as geographic boundaries. The guidebook provides different options that allow users to define an effective inventory approach within the limits of available resources. Industry-wide adoption of the guidance materials could ultimately lead to consistent inventory methods by different airports to facilitate compar- isons and sharing of knowledge.
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Application of the inventory procedures provided within the guidebook could also help airports track GHG emissions over time, recognizing contributions from specific sources within defined activity boundaries. As a result, broad use of the proposed inventory proce- dures could help clarify ownership and control issues and assist in quantifying and compar- ing potential reductions in GHG emissions using alternative actions and programs within the airport environment. Potential users of this guidebook are first and foremost airport operators and managers, and their consultants. City and state officials could also use the guidebook to help integrate airport GHG inventories into their larger regional inventories, clarifying the specific makeup and percentage of airport-generated contributions. The broader scientific commu- nity should also be interested in the process to enhance understanding of the sources of GHG, the emissions calculation methods and how to create CO2 equivalencies. Ultimately, the information gathered should be useful for studying the impacts of airport-generated GHG emissions on climate change.
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CONTENTS 1 Chapter 1 Introduction and Background 1 1.1 Purpose of the Guidebook 2 1.2 Regulatory Considerations 3 1.3 Overview of Greenhouse Gas Emissions 3 1.4 Overview of Reasons for Preparing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventories 4 1.4.1 Climate Change Initiatives--Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals 6 1.4.2 Environmental Management and Sustainability Programs 6 1.4.3 Disclosure of Project/Action Effects 8 1.4.4 Future Regulations 8 1.5 Airport Source Contributions to Greenhouse Gas Emissions 9 1.6 Introduction to the Use of Equivalency Methods 10 1.7 Allocating Emissions Reductions 12 Chapter 2 Inventory Development Considerations 12 2.1 Purpose of the Inventory 13 2.2 Identification of the Ownership and Control Boundaries 13 2.2.1 Traditional Criteria Pollutant Inventory Boundaries 13 2.2.2 Greenhouse Gas Inventory Boundaries 15 2.3 Identification of Sources and Pollutants 16 2.4 Ownership and Influence Categorizations 17 2.5 Geographic Boundaries 18 2.6 Data Availability 18 2.7 Reporting Units for Pollutants 19 Chapter 3 Emissions Calculations and Application of CO2 Equivalencies 20 3.1 Aircraft 21 3.1.1 Aircraft Method 1 22 3.1.2 Aircraft Method 2 23 3.1.3 Aircraft Method 3 24 3.1.4 Other Pollutants 24 3.2 Auxiliary Power Unit 25 3.3 Ground Support Equipment 25 3.3.1 GSE Method 1 25 3.3.2 GSE Method 2 26 3.3.3 Other Pollutants 26 3.4 Ground Access Vehicles 27 3.4.1 GAV Method 1 28 3.4.2 GAV Method 2 28 3.4.3 GAV Method 3 29 3.4.4 Other Pollutants 29 3.5 Stationary Sources
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29 3.5.1 Stationary Source Combustion Activities--Method 1 30 3.5.2 Stationary Source Combustion Activities--Method 2 30 3.5.3 Electricity Usage (Utility Purchases) 31 3.5.4 Other Pollutants 31 3.6 Waste Management Activities 32 3.7 Training Fires 32 3.8 Construction Activities 33 3.9 Other Airport Sources 34 3.10 Calculation of CO2 Equivalencies 35 References 38 Acronyms 40 Glossary 49 Frequently Asked Questions 53 Appendices A Through F