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VOLUME 23 NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 500 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan Volume 23: A Guide for Reducing Speeding-Related Crashes

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2009 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka VICE CHAIR: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg John D. Bowe, President, Americas Region, APL Limited, Oakland, CA Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles David S. Ekern, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Will Kempton, Director, California DOT, Sacramento Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Bentonville, AR Rosa Clausell Rountree, Consultant, Tyrone, GA Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Paul R. Brubaker, Research and Innovative Technology Administrator, U.S.DOT George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Sean T. Connaughton, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT Clifford C. Eby, Acting Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John H. Hill, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC Carl T. Johnson, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT David Kelly, Acting Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Sherry E. Little, Acting Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT Thomas J. Madison, Jr., Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Robert A. Sturgell, Acting Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of January 2009.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 500 Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan Volume 23: A Guide for Reducing Speeding-Related Crashes Timothy R. Neuman, Kevin L. Slack, Kelly K. Hardy, Vanessa L. Bond CH2M HILL Chantilly, VA Ingrid Potts MIDWEST RESEARCH INSTITUTE Kansas City, MO Neil Lerner WESTAT INC. Rockville, MD Subject Areas Safety and Human Performance Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2009 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY NCHRP REPORT 500, VOLUME 23 RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 17-18(3) approach to the solution of many problems facing highway ISSN 0077-5614 administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISBN: 978-0-309-11770-8 interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually Library of Congress Control Number 2008904443 or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the 2009 Transportation Research Board accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of COPYRIGHT PERMISSION cooperative research. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials published or copyrighted material used herein. initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission Transportation. from CRP. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding of NOTICE modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, Governing Board's judgment that the program concerned is of national importance and state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review this objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed research directly to those who are in a position to use them. or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical committee, they are not necessarily those of The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, the American by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, or the Federal Highway and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical committee according Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and and Transportation Officials, and the individual states participating in the National surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 500, VOLUME 23 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Charles W. Niessner, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natassja Linzau, Editor Natalie Barnes, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 17-18(3) PANEL Field of Traffic--Area of Safety Thomas E. Bryer, Science Applications International Corporation, Camp Hill, PA (Chair) Jasvinderjit "Jesse" Bhullar, California DOT Linda A. Cosgrove, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Troy Costales, Oregon DOT Leanna Depue, Missouri DOT L. Keith Golden, Georgia DOT Barbara Harsha, Governors Highway Safety Association, Washington, DC Bruce Ibarguen, Maine DOT Marlene Markison, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Margaret "Meg" Moore, Texas DOT Kathryn R. Swanson, Minnesota Department of Public Safety, St. Paul, MN Rudy Umbs, FHWA Thomas M. Welch, Iowa DOT Ray Krammes, FHWA Liaison Ken Kobetsky, AASHTO Liaison Richard Pain, TRB Liaison

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FOREWORD By Charles W. Niessner Staff Officer Transportation Research Board The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) has adopted a national highway safety goal of halving fatalities over the next 2 decades--or reducing the number of fatalities by 1,000 per year. This goal can be achieved through the widespread application of low-cost, proven countermeasures that reduce the number of crashes on the nation's highways. This twenty-third volume of NCHRP Report 500: Guid- ance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan provides strategies that can be employed to reduce crashes involving speeding. The report will be of particular interest to safety practitioners with responsibility for implementing programs to reduce injuries and fatalities on the highway system. In 1998, AASHTO approved its Strategic Highway Safety Plan, which was developed by the AASHTO Standing Committee for Highway Traffic Safety with the assistance of the Fed- eral Highway Administration, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, and the Transportation Research Board Committee on Transportation Safety Management. The plan includes strategies in 22 key emphasis areas that affect highway safety. Each of the 22 empha- sis areas includes strategies and an outline of what is needed to implement each strategy. NCHRP Project 17-18(3) is developing a series of guides to assist state and local agen- cies in reducing injuries and fatalities in targeted areas. The guides correspond to the emphasis areas outlined in the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan. Each guide includes a brief introduction, a general description of the problem, the strategies/countermeasures to address the problem, and a model implementation process. This is the twenty-third volume of NCHRP Report 500: Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan, a series in which relevant information is assem- bled into single concise volumes, each pertaining to specific types of highway crashes (e.g., run-off-the-road, head-on) or contributing factors (e.g., aggressive driving). An expanded version of each volume with additional reference material and links to other information sources is available on the AASHTO Web site at http://safety.transportation.org. Future vol- umes of the report will be published and linked to the Web site as they are completed. While each volume includes countermeasures for dealing with particular crash empha- sis areas, NCHRP Report 501: Integrated Management Process to Reduce Highway Injuries and Fatalities Statewide provides an overall framework for coordinating a safety program. The integrated management process comprises the necessary steps for advancing from crash data to integrated action plans. The process includes methodologies to aid the practitioner in problem identification, resource optimization, and performance measurements. Together, the management process and the guides provide a comprehensive set of tools for managing a coordinated highway safety program.

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CONTENTS ix Acknowledgments I-1 Section I Summary I-1 Introduction I-2 General Description of the Problem I-3 Objectives of the Emphasis Area II-1 Section II Introduction III-1 Section III Type of Problem Being Addressed III-1 General Description of the Problem III-2 Specific Attributes of the Problem IV-1 Section IV Index of Strategies by Implementation Timeframe and Relative Cost V-1 Section V Description of Strategies V-1 Objectives V-4 Types of Strategies V-5 Related Strategies for Creating a Truly Comprehensive Approach V-6 Objective A--Set Appropriate Speed Limits V-16 Objective B--Heighten Driver Awareness of Speeding-Related Safety Issues V-29 Objective C--Improve Efficiency and Effectiveness of Speed Enforcement Efforts V-48 Objective D--Communicate Appropriate Speeds through Use of Traffic Control Devices V-65 Objective E--Ensure Roadway Design and Traffic Control Elements Support Appropriate and Safe Speeds VI-1 Section VI Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan VI-1 Outline for a Model Implementation Process VI-2 Purpose of the Model Process VI-2 Overview of the Model Process VI-5 Implementation Step 1: Identify and Define the Problem VI-9 Implementation Step 2: Recruit Appropriate Participants for the Program VI-11 Implementation Step 3: Establish Crash Reduction Goals VI-12 Implementation Step 4: Develop Program Policies, Guidelines, and Specifications VI-13 Implementation Step 5: Develop Alternative Approaches to Addressing the Problem VI-15 Implementation Step 6: Evaluate Alternatives and Select a Plan VI-17 Implementation Step 7: Submit Recommendations for Action by Top Management

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VI-18 Implementation Step 8: Develop a Plan of Action VI-20 Implementation Step 9: Establish Foundations for Implementing the Program VI-21 Implementation Step 10: Carry Out the Action Plan VI-22 Implementation Step 11: Assess and Transition the Program VII-1 Section VII Key References A-1 Appendixes

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This volume of NCHRP Report 500 was developed under NCHRP Project 17-18(3), the prod- uct of which is a series of implementation guides addressing the emphasis areas of AASHTO's Strategic Highway Safety Plan. The project was managed by CH2M HILL, and the co-principal investigators were Ronald Pfefer of Maron Engineering and Kevin Slack of CH2M HILL. Tim- othy Neuman of CH2M HILL served as the overall project director for the team. Kelly Hardy and Vanessa Bond, also of CH2M HILL, served as technical specialists on the development of the guides. The project team was organized around the specialized technical content contained in each guide, and the team included nationally recognized experts from many organizations. The fol- lowing team of experts, selected based on their knowledge and expertise in this particular emphasis area, served as lead authors for the speed guide: Kelly Hardy CH2M HILL Development of the volumes of NCHRP Report 500 utilized the resources and expertise of many professionals from around the country and overseas. Through research, workshops, and actual demonstration of the guides by agencies, the resulting documents represent best prac- tices in each emphasis area. The project team is grateful to the following list of people and their agencies for supporting the project through their participation in workshops and meetings, as well as additional reviews of the speed guide: American Association of Collier County Governors Highway Safety State Highway and Transportation Division Association Transportation Officials Gene Calvert Barbara Harsha Keith Sinclair Data Nexus, Inc. Human Factors North California Highway Patrol Larry Holestine Alison Smiley Joseph Farrow Delaware Department of International Association of Caltrans Transportation Chiefs of Police Craig Copeland Tom Meyer David Tollett Richard Ashton City of Iowa City, Iowa Delaware Office of Anissa Williams Highway Safety Insurance Institute for Tricia Roberts Highway Safety City of Kansas City, Richard Retting Missouri Federal Highway Susan Ferguson Steve Worley Administration Abdul Zineddin Institute of City of Seattle, AJ Nedzesky Transportation Engineers Washington Davey Warren Lisa Fontana-Tierney Wayne Wentz David Smith Phil Caruso Ray Krammes

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Iowa Department of Midwest Research Institute South Carolina Department Transportation Doug Harwood of Transportation Kurtis Younkin Terecia Wilson Tim Simodynes Ohio State Patrol Tom Welch Bob Brooks Texas Department of Transportation Maine Department of National Highway Traffic Carlos Lopez Transportation Safety Association Brad Foley Earl Hardy Traffic Safety Solutions Garrett Morford Glenn Hansen Maryland State Highway Hector Williams Administration Keith Williams Transportation Research Ron Lipps Pamela Chapman Board Paul Tremont Rick Pain Minnesota Department of Shayne Sewell Transportation Virginia Department of Dan Brannan Pennsylvania Department of Transportation Transportation Chung Chen Mississippi Department of Gary Modi Stephen Read Transportation Edward Raymond Jim Willis