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OCR for page 17
SECTION IV Index of Strategies by Implementation Timeframe and Relative Cost A central tenet of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan and its application at the state or local level is the time and cost to implement. Emphasis is on identifying strategies that are low cost (and hence able to be implemented on a broad or systematic basis), and take little time to implement. Time to implement addresses the urgency of achieving meaningful reductions in fatalities as quickly as is possible. In developing this and other similar guides, strategies that appear effective yet are clearly expensive and/or time-consuming were excluded. Exhibit IV-1 provides a classification of strategies according to the expected timeframe required for implementation and relative cost to implement and operate each strategy for this emphasis area. In several cases, the implementation time will be dependent on such factors as the agency's procedures, the number of stakeholders involved, and the presence of any controversial situations. The range of costs may also be somewhat variable for some of these strategies, due to many of the same factors. Placement in the table below is meant to reflect costs relative to the other strategies listed for this emphasis area only, rather than relative to strategies discussed in other guides in the NCHRP Report 500 series. The estimated level of cost is for the commonly expected application of the strategy, especially one which does not involve additional right-of-way or major construction, unless it is an inherent part of the strategy. EXHIBIT IV-1 Strategies Classified by Relative Cost and Time Necessary for Implementation Relative Cost to Implement and Operate Strategy Timeframe: Short (less than 1 year) Low A1 Set speed limits that account for roadway design, traffic, and environment A2 Implement variable speed limits A3 Implement differential speed limits for heavy vehicles if appropriate B2 Increase public awareness of potential penalties for speeding B3 Increase public awareness of risks of not wearing seatbelts B4 Implement neighborhood speed watch/traffic management programs C3 Increase penalties for repeat and excessive speeding offenders C4 Strengthen the adjudication of speeding citations to enhance the deterrent effect of fines IV-1

OCR for page 17
SECTION IV--INDEX OF STRATEGIES BY IMPLEMENTATION TIMEFRAME AND RELATIVE COST EXHIBIT IV-1 (Continued) Strategies Classified by Relative Cost and Time Necessary for Implementation Relative Cost to Implement and Operate Strategy C5 Increase fines in special areas D1 Improve speed limit signage D2 Implement active speed warning signs E4 Provide adequate change + clearance intervals at signalized intersections E5 Operate traffic signals appropriately for intersections and corridors (signal progression) Moderate B1 Increase public awareness of the risks of driving at unsafe speeds B5 Implement Safe Community programs C1 Use targeted conventional speed enforcement programs at locations known to have speeding-related crashes D3 Use in-pavement measures to communicate the need to reduce speeds Moderate to High E8 Install lighting at high-speed intersections High Timeframe: Medium (12 years) Low Moderate Moderate to High C2 Implement automated speed enforcement D4 Implement variable message signs E3 Provide appropriate intersection design for speed of roadway E6 Provide adequate sight distance for expected speeds E7 Implement protected-only signal phasing for left turns at high-speed signalized intersections E9 Reduce speeds and/or volumes on both neighborhood and downtown streets with the use of traffic calming and other related countermeasures High E2 Effect safe speed transitions through design elements and on approaches to lower speed areas Time Frame: Long (more than 2 years) Low Moderate Moderate to High High E1 Use combinations of geometric elements to control speeds IV-2