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OCR for page 3
SECTION I--SUMMARY Objectives of the Emphasis Area The speeding-related safety issues discussed above are the basis for the inclusion of the strategies discussed in Section V. The strategies cover setting appropriate speed limits, improving driver awareness of speeding-related safety concerns, improving enforcement efforts, communicating appropriate speeds with drivers, and ensuring the roadway environment is designed and operated so as to encourage appropriate speeds. The strategies are grouped by objective--the safety concerns being addressed. Exhibit I-1 lists the objectives and the related strategies discussed in this guide. The strategies considered cover the full range of engineering, enforcement, and education: Set appropriate speed limits--Speed limits that appear inconsistent may be ignored by the majority of drivers and this may contribute to lack of respect for speed limit and other traffic laws. Setting speed limits to reflect the surrounding context of the roadway and meet with driver expectations can help improve driver respect for speed limits. Heighten driver awareness of speeding-related safety issues--Informing drivers of the risks--both to themselves and to other road users--associated with speeding is intended to encourage drivers to obey speed limits and drive at speeds safe for the roadway environment. EXHIBIT I-1 Objectives and Strategies for Addressing Speeding-Related Fatalities Objectives Strategies A. Set appropriate speed limits A1 Set speed limits which account for roadway design, traffic, and environment A2 Implement variable speed limits A3 Implement differential speed limits for heavy vehicles if appropriate (High Speed Only) B. Heighten driver awareness of B1 Increase public awareness of risks of driving at unsafe speeds speeding-related safety issues B2 Increase public awareness of potential penalties for speeding B3 Increase public awareness of risks of not wearing seatbelts B4 Implement neighborhood speed watch/traffic management programs (Low Speed Only) B5 Implement Safe Community Programs C. Improve efficiency and effective- C1 Use targeted conventional speed enforcement programs at ness of speed enforcement efforts locations known to have speeding-related crashes C2 Implement automated speed enforcement C3 Increase penalties for repeat and excessive speeding offenders C4 Strengthen the adjudication of speeding citations to enhance the deterrent effect of fines C5 Increase fines in special areas I-3

OCR for page 3
SECTION I--SUMMARY EXHIBIT I-1 (Continued) Objectives and Strategies for Addressing Speeding-Related Fatalities Objectives Strategies D. Communicate appropriate speeds D1 Improve speed limit signage through use of traffic control devices D2 Implement active speed warning signs D3 Use in-pavement measures to communicate the need to reduce speeds D4 Implement variable message signs (High Speed Only) E. Ensure that roadway design and E1 Use combinations of geometric elements to control speeds traffic control elements support appropriate and safe speeds E2 Effect safe speed transitions through design elements and on approaches to lower speed areas E3 Provide appropriate intersection design for speed of roadway E4 Provide adequate change + clearance intervals at signalized intersections E5 Operate traffic signals appropriately for intersections and corridors (signal progression) E6 Provide adequate sight distance for expected speeds E7 Implement protected-only signal phasing for left turns at high- speed signalized intersections (High Speed Only) E8 Install lighting at high-speed intersections (High Speed Only) E9 Reduce speeds and/or volumes on both neighborhood and downtown streets with the use of traffic calming and other related countermeasures (Low Speed Only) Improve the effectiveness of speed enforcement efforts--Many crashes are caused or aggravated by drivers' noncompliance with traffic control devices or traffic laws. Effec- tiveness of enforcement can be increased if drivers perceive there is a significant chance they may be cited for speeding and may be given a hefty fine. Visible conventional or automated enforcement programs, increased fines for repeat offenders, and upholding of citations and levying of fines by courts can increase drivers' perceptions of the enforcement- related risks of speeding. Communicate appropriate speeds through use of traffic control devices--Information on appropriate speeds, including permanent speed limits, variable speed limits, and warning speeds, needs to be conveyed clearly to drivers and at appropriate locations. Pavement markings can be used to encourage drivers to proceed at appropriate speeds without actually posting the speed limit. Even though drivers have the responsibility to drive at a safe speed, they need to be able to receive cues from the roadway environment as to what that safe speed is. I-4

OCR for page 3
SECTION I--SUMMARY Ensure roadway design and traffic control elements support appropriate and safe speeds--Geometric design features of roadway sections and intersections, and operation of traffic signals, need to reflect the speeds desired of drivers. For example, roadway design elements sensitive to the context in which they will be located can encourage appro- priate speed choices by drivers. Geometric elements which affect operating speeds, such as horizontal and vertical curves, can be designed in combinations to encourage appropriate speeds. Intersection types and designs should be appropriate for the context of the road- way. Providing a proper signal coordination through intersections along a corridor can create uniform speeds and reduce the need for drivers to stop at the intersections. I-5