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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES Objective B--Heighten Driver Awareness of Speeding-Related Safety Issues Increasing driver awareness is an important element in reducing speeding-related crashes. Public information and education campaigns that seek to inform drivers of the potential risks of driving at speeds considered excessive for the conditions or roadway environment may encourage drivers to select more appropriate speeds. Appealing to their sense of personal safety, by educating them about the risks involved with driving at high speeds, may help alter driver behavior. Making drivers aware of the monetary and safety-related costs of speeding can be an effective approach in reducing speeding-related crashes. The strategies in this section are closely linked to the strategies in the next section that seek to improve the effectiveness of enforcement efforts. A driver education campaign can also reduce perceptions people have concerning the acceptability of speeding. Strategy B1--Increase Public Awareness of Risks of Driving at Unsafe Speeds (T) Many drivers will speed if they do not perceive there to be a chance of being cited for speeding; educating them about the risks involved with driving at unsafe speeds may help alter their behavior. Public information materials should concentrate on communicating specific concerns related to speeding in a way that is easily understood and captures the audience's attention, particularly for different age groups. There is much information on this issue that the public can readily access, however exposure may be limited without an education campaign designed to widely distribute the information. Such a campaign can include radio and television public service announcements, flyers and brochures, billboards, websites, and other various means of media communication appropriate for reaching the target audience. Educational materials have been developed by several organizations for use in public information campaigns as well as for use by the general public. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has such materials available for download from its website or in printed format. NHTSA's Traffic Safety Materials Catalog (http://nhtsa.gov/ people/outreach/media/catalog/Index.cfm) includes brochures, pamphlets, books, fact sheets, posters, reports, stickers, CD-ROMs, etc. Additional materials from other sources are described below under the heading "Information on Current Knowledge Regarding Agencies or Organizations That Are Implementing This Strategy." Educational programs and activities are good methods for informing young and inexperienced drivers. This is one of the most important groups to target, as less experienced drivers are often unaware of many of the risks associated with speeding, and the potential repercussions of driving at an unsafe speed. NCHRP Report 500, Volume 19: "A Guide for Reducing Collisions Involving Younger Drivers" provides more information on targeting this age group with information and education campaigns. An agency may wish to target drivers of a specific roadway with an information campaign if speed is a contributing factor in crashes on a specific portion of that roadway. An example is the Virginia Highway Safety Corridor Program, discussed further in Strategy C1, where specific segments of Virginia highways are designated as safety corridors and increased fines and enforcement are used to target corridor-specific safety issues. V-16

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES Elements of a jurisdiction-wide campaign would be applicable to a broader range of issues over a much larger area and the methods for implementing such a campaign would likely differ from a corridor-specific campaign. An agency may choose to incorporate variable message signs, billboards, or highway advisory radio to distribute information for a program of this type. See Exhibit V-4 for more information. EXHIBIT V-4 Strategy Attributes for Increasing Public Awareness of Risks of Driving at Unsafe Speeds (T) Attribute Description Technical Attributes Target This strategy involves use of public information and education campaigns aimed at either the general public in an agency's jurisdiction, or a specific demographic or geographic part of the population for which unsafe speeds have been shown to be a factor in the area's crash experience. Expected Effectiveness The effectiveness of public information campaigns to increase driver awareness of the hazards of driving at unsafe speeds has not been quantified. Such programs, if well-designed to broadly distribute the information, would be expected to be successful in reaching the audience, and to lessen risky behaviors, though it may be difficult to relate a reduction in speeding-related crashes directly to a campaign. Well-designed public awareness campaigns heighten awareness of a problem and garner high approval ratings. Many agencies have indicated improving their public image and increasing goodwill with the public as a result of their public awareness campaigns. At times, the public information campaign may include notice of special emphasis on enforcement. Public information campaigns, done in conjunction with special enforcement, have been shown to enhance the effectiveness of the enforcement effort. Keys to Success One key to success is identifying the specific audience for the program. This can help in the design of campaign materials, the method for distributing the materials, and the evaluation of its effectiveness (through examination of crash data, surveys, or focus groups of the intended audience). Another key to success is identifying and reaching as large a percentage of the target audience as possible. Program materials should be created professionally and designed for the designated audience. Materials should focus on specific safety concerns related to unsafe speed choices or serve as an appeal to drive more slowly. Awareness can be promoted through driver education programs as well as public outreach activities. Adding general information on speeding and safe driving to booklets and pamphlets made available through the driver licensing agencies can add to the impact of this effort, since the time for license renewal is the one time when drivers' attention to such matters is at its height. The same principle applies to students in driver education courses. Those in charge of public information and education campaigns should cultivate and maintain good contacts with the print and broadcast media. Media representatives can be invited to planning meetings where campaigns are being designed. Means for receiving free space or time can be sought, as part of the media's responsibility to provide public service. V-17

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-4 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Increasing Public Awareness of Risks of Driving at Unsafe Speeds (T) Attribute Description Highway agencies should ensure that education and information programs are scheduled when most likely to maximize the exposure of the message to the target population (for example, rush hour or vacation season). Campaigns should focus on situations familiar to the intended target population. Radio public service announcements, billboards, ads in theater playbills, and messages on transit vehicles are effective methods for communicating with target populations at desired times. Potential Difficulties High quality and effective informational materials can be rather high in cost. Also, educational information can be difficult to display and communicate to the public without help from local officials, educators, important agency cooperation, etc. Public information and education campaigns may not reach a large portion of the targeted audience if appropriate dissemination methods are not used. A range of media should be used, including television, radio, newspaper, Internet, club, and association meeting presentations, and other measures deemed appropriate for a specific area or audience. Consideration should be given to people who may need materials in languages other than English or in alternative formats to accommodate disabilities. Appropriate Measures Process measures include documenting the number, types of different programs and Data used to disseminate information, frequency of different media used (radio ads, brochures, etc.), and measures of population exposed to the message. Level of expenditure is another possible process measure. The impact of a program on driver attitude, knowledge, and understanding, or on driver interpretation of devices, can be performed by assessing a sample of people in the target area. This assessment would require a measurement of attitudes, knowledge, and understanding at the start of the program and another at the conclusion so that comparisons could be made. Measurement may be done in a number of ways, including surveys (e.g., telephone, roadside, or mail interviews), and focus groups. It is not feasible to directly measure effectiveness of educational programs in terms of effect on crash experience, due to the many intervening variables. However, surrogate measures may be employed, including before and after test results, interviews, and observation of change in behavior. Associated Needs Studying attributes of drivers involved in speeding-related crashes may help identify areas of the population upon which to focus future campaign efforts. There is a need for cooperation among various media agencies to effectively implement this strategy. Skilled professionals are needed to create the materials employed in the training or information campaign and should be involved from the start of project planning. Use of those with expertise in listener and viewer characteristics will allow for optimal targeting of messages broadcast by various media outlets. If evaluations will be done using surveys, this will require expertise that may not be available within the agency. Survey specialists can be contracted to create the survey questions, administer the survey, and summarize and analyze the results. V-18

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-4 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Increasing Public Awareness of Risks of Driving at Unsafe Speeds (T) Attribute Description Organizational and Institutional Attributes Organizational, A cooperative effort with driver educators and departments of motor vehicles is Institutional and Policy desirable. Issues For campaigns targeted at local areas, the law enforcement agency with jurisdiction over the community may be the best organization to lead the program, since a department of public works or local highway agency may not be well-suited to leading implementation of education campaigns. At the very least, close coordination with local law enforcement and highway agencies is necessary. If public information campaign expertise is not available within an agency, it may be necessary to involve another agency or use a private media consultant. Since the cooperation of the media and other non-governmental organizations is so important, a mechanism is desirable for maintaining communication and involvement. If an agency has a public relations section, that office would be of help. Issues Affecting The time required to start the program will depend on the time needed to create or Implementation Time update media materials for public information campaigns, and secure time and space for the dissemination of materials. These programs should be well planned before implementation. The more time invested in the planning process, the greater the likelihood of success in reaching the target audience. The time to implement this strategy could be relatively short, depending on how much of the system is already in place, but 6 months (or more) could be required to design and launch a successful program. If a highway agency has previously worked with driver educators, departments of motor vehicles, and media outlets, this will reduce implementation time, and only the specific messages or materials will need to be developed once it is agreed that agencies will collaborate on the program. A longer-term public education and information campaign will be more likely to reach the most people and reinforce the message being sent. Costs Involved There would be costs involved in updating existing and/or developing new information materials. These costs could be variable depending on the nature of the materials being developed, and the extent of the materials that have already been developed. Dissemination of the information, including making drivers aware that new or updated materials are available, will add to the costs of implementation. Public service announcements on radio and television do not have airtime charges, but are generally more expensive to produce than other formats and may be aired at less than ideal times. Printed or billboard ads can be produced for less than broadcast messages, but there may be monthly charges for posting. The costs involved in a public information and education campaign can vary widely depending on the type of media distribution (e.g. television, radio, newspaper, website, other), intended length of the campaign, and the frequency with which the message is disseminated. Staff resources are needed to develop and manage the program. Training and Other Driver trainers should be educated in the risks involved with speeding so they are Personnel Needs better able to emphasize this in driver education curriculums. V-19

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-4 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Increasing Public Awareness of Risks of Driving at Unsafe Speeds (T) Attribute Description If public information campaign expertise is not available within an agency, it may be necessary to involve another agency or use a private media consultant. Some staff may have to go through a brief training course to make more effective public presentations on the topic. Legislative Needs None identified. Other Key Attributes Compatibility of This strategy can be used in conjunction with other strategies to reduce speeding- Different Strategies related fatalities on roadways. Other Key Attributes to None identified. a Particular Strategy Information on Current Knowledge Regarding Agencies or Organizations That Are Implementing This Strategy NHTSA created a Traffic Safety Marketing website that provides numerous references and ideas available for organizations to publicize the risks of speeding. Sample posters, billboards, radio spots and television advertisements are available on the website to provide ideas: http://www.trafficsafetymarketing.gov. Advocates for Highway and Auto Safety is an organization comprised of consumer, insurance, and health and safety groups. Their primary objective is to improve awareness of safety issues and support federal and state policies that target traffic safety. The group has a website with safety information concerning speeding and related safety issues: http://www. saferoads.org/index.htm. The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety primarily observes vehicle safety features and their effectiveness in the event of a crash. They have material available online concerning safety and speed related collisions: http://www.iihs.org/safety_facts/safety.htm. Strategy B2--Increase Public Awareness of Potential Penalties for Speeding (T) Appealing to a driver's concern for his/her own personal safety or informing of the risks (Strategy B1) associated with driving at unsafe speeds may be effective in addressing the issue of speeding with some drivers. However, for others, appealing to their pocketbook is the most effective means of changing behavior. Penalties for excessive speeding, including fines, points, potential loss of license and delay of full licensure in graduated licensing programs can be deterrents to speeding behavior. In addition to civil penalties, car insurance companies may charge their customers more after receiving citations for unsafe driving behavior. Making drivers aware of the direct costs associated with excessive speeding, whether directly related to a crash or not, can be an effective strategy. V-20

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES As mentioned previously, one of the most effective ways to communicate potential speeding penalties is through education and information campaigns. The media can demonstrate potential penalties for speeding and provide examples of specific instances where such penalties were enforced. Newspaper and television news agencies are good sources for relaying information such as heightened speeding enforcement efforts and speeding penalties. Some local newspapers in smaller communities have a public safety log, with a description and driver information concerning accidents and traffic-related violations, such as speeding. This is an effective way to inform the public of such penalties, and can have a deterrent effect as well. School systems, particularly high school driver education courses, provide opportunities to educate younger drivers on local speeding penalties. Differences in Speeding-Related Penalties A variety of penalties can be imposed as a consequence of speeding. The most common penalty for drivers exceeding the posted speed limit is a fine, which is issued by the local police department and highway patrol officers. Laws governing speeding vary by state and local municipalities; however, it is important to inform drivers that they are susceptible to a speeding ticket if they are exceeding the speed limit, no matter by how little. Although enforcement and penalties are not the only reason that drivers should not speed, this seems to be a deterrent, at least when the threat of being penalized is apparent. There are several studies based on surveys that indicate that the presence of enforcement can indeed reduce travel speeds. One particular study in Australia observed law enforcement presence and speeding behavior. Surveys from the study found that repeated law enforcement presence on roadways can reduce the proportion of speeding vehicles on a roadway by approximately two-thirds (Armour, 1986). The study also found that within moments following exposure to law enforcement officers, drivers tended to increase to their normal travel speeds when they felt the law enforcement presence was no longer visible. Based on results from this and similar studies, one can assume that people sometimes recognize the risk of a penalty, rather than safety risks. Penalties vary depending on the state law. NHTSA has an online table indicating penalties and state laws for speeding violations (http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/PEOPLE/INJURY/ enforce/speedlaws501/summary_table.htm). Most states do not issue tickets exceeding $100 to first-time offenders (depending on state and local laws and the circumstances for which they were cited). However, depending on the circumstances, even first-time offenders can face jail time anywhere from 10 to 90 days. Drivers who are speeding and sanctioned with reckless driving, racing, under the influence of drugs or alcohol, or are repeat offenders are subject to increased fines, jail time, and license suspension. In cases where excessive speeding and reckless driving result in fatalities, drivers are subject to being charged with offenses such as vehicular manslaughter. In extreme cases, jail time and fines can be very high. There are several approaches to monitor and deter repeat speeding offenders who regain or have not lost their licenses. One such method includes striping license plates; this has been used in some states for persons who are caught driving without a valid license. License plate striping is mentioned in NCHRP Report 500, Volume 2: "A Guide for Addressing Collisions Involving Unlicensed Drivers and Drivers with Suspended or Revoked Licenses." This method has been a proven strategy in certain states to minimize illegal driving. This method can be applied to repeat offenders of speeding violations, such that they would receive a V-21

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES striped renewal sticker to place on their license plates. These stickers would serve as indicators (and reminders) to law enforcement and the driver that he/she is a repeat offender. The public should be informed of such programs, in order to convey the message that a fine may not be the only penalty for serious speeding offenses. Exhibit V-5 provides more information on this subject. EXHIBIT V-5 Strategy Attributes for Increasing Public Awareness of Potential Penalties for Speeding (T) Attribute Description Technical Attributes Target This strategy targets all drivers, as well as specific groups such as younger drivers, repeat speeding offenders, and any other portions of the driving population in an agency's jurisdiction with a high proportion of speeding-related crashes. Expected Effectiveness Public awareness of speeding penalties is expected to have a deterrent effect; however, it is difficult to quantify effects of information campaigns on speeding behavior. Statistics from FARS and numerous other sources can be used to determine audiences for information on potential penalties, such as younger males. For young drivers, testing driver education students is a good tool to evaluate their knowledge of speeding penalties. Keys to Success This strategy requires the support of those responsible for law enforcement and adjudication, as well as driver education teachers. To contribute to the success of this strategy, officials should be proactive in advertising the penalties for speeding and the likelihood of receiving citations during speed limit enforcement efforts. Support and coordination among agencies is important for a successful campaign. It is important that the message of increased enforcement be communicated; however, whether specific details of speed checks are to be announced publicly is based on an agency's preference. Potential Difficulties Getting local judicial, law enforcement, and educational officials and professionals to cooperate and continuously educate and enforce speeding penalties can be difficult if the agencies have not established procedures for working together. Doing so will help ensure a successful program. Appropriate Measures Data on speeding and enforcement should be reviewed before and after speeding and Data penalty campaigns and should be a continuous effort. Analysis of citations and speeding-related crashes will indicate factors such as age and gender, information that can be used to help design a program. Results/trends found from speeding data should be shared with the court system, other law enforcement agencies, and driver education officials to indicate any changes that can to be made to improve upon the campaign. Associated Needs Coordination with enforcement agencies is important, so visible enforcement programs can be developed to help drivers perceive the potential for receiving citations. Organizational and Institutional Attributes Organizational, Coordination between departments of transportation, departments of public safety, Institutional and Policy educators, and others will be an important aspect of developing a viable program Issues with materials that effectively reach the intended audience. V-22

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-5 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Increasing Public Awareness of Potential Penalties for Speeding (T) Attribute Description Issues Affecting In order to develop an effective campaign, campaign details and event scheduling Implementation Time should be planned prior to distribution of the campaign materials. Likewise, coordination with other agencies involved in safety may take some time, and should be started at early stages of the speed penalty campaign. Costs Involved Cost for this strategy will vary depending on the extent of the campaign, the materials developed, and the size of the audience to reach. More detailed campaign materials in a variety of formats will increase costs, as will coordination among various agencies. If a campaign will be relatively small and target a small population, or if an agency has an established procedure for coordinating with other agencies, this strategy should be relatively low cost. Training and Other For the speed penalty awareness campaign, there will likely not be much training Personnel Needs needed if judicial, law enforcement, and educators are involved. They should already have great knowledge of such issues, and have information concerning different aspects of speeding penalties to contribute. Legislative Needs None identified. Other Key Attributes Compatibility of This strategy can be used in conjunction with other strategies discussed in this guide. Different Strategies Other Key Attributes to None identified. a Particular Strategy Strategy B3--Increase Public Awareness of Risks of Not Wearing Seatbelts (T) Informing the public of risks associated with driving at unsafe speeds was identified in Strategy B1 as one effective approach in heightening driver awareness of speeding-related safety issues. The risks associated with not wearing seatbelts are also an important aspect to highlight in public awareness campaigns. Though increased seatbelt use is not directly related to a reduction in speeding-related crashes, it is closely related to a reduction in serious injuries and fatalities as a result of speeding-related crashes. NCHRP Report 500, Volume 11: "A Guide for Increasing Seatbelt Use" covers strategies for increasing the use of seatbelts; therefore, an overview of the information is presented in this guide, and Volume 11 should be referenced for additional information. In Volume 11, three objectives were identified for the occupant restraint area: 1. Initiate programs to maximize use of occupant restraints by all vehicle occupants; 2. Ensure that restraints for children of all ages are properly used; and 3. Provide access to appropriate information, materials, and guidelines for those imple- menting programs to increase occupant restraint use. The information in Strategy B1 of this guide, though written in the context of programs related to speeding, also applies to public information campaigns on the importance of V-23

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES seatbelt use. Information to convey to the public, which may help convince reluctant drivers to wear their seatbelts, could include the average seatbelt use rate for the targeted area and statistics on the improved chances for surviving crashes when restraints are used. Strategy B4--Implement Neighborhood Speed Watch/Traffic Management Programs (Low Speed Only) (T) Establishing a neighborhood speed watch committee, and posting signs alerting drivers to "watch their speed," can draw drivers' attention to their speeds as they travel through neighborhoods. Anecdotal evidence from law enforcement programs indicates that drivers speeding through neighborhoods are often people that reside in the neighborhood, and a traffic management program can provide information and education on the neighborhood level. Neighborhood Traffic Management Programs Neighborhood Traffic Management Programs (NTMPs) are being created all across the country. Cities develop these programs to assist residents in creating traffic management plans for their neighborhoods. This allows residents to provide input into traffic management issues in their communities. Through these programs, the city provides citizens with the resources to pursue solutions to their neighborhoods' traffic problems. Citizens are encouraged to create a neighborhood traffic safety committee. This committee will become the face of the neighborhood when dealing with the city government on traffic safety issues and can serve to facilitate communication between transportation departments when discussing traffic management options for a neighborhood. These committees are not only the liaisons between the neighborhood and the city, but they also can act as educators to the public. Public awareness campaigns are often started by neighborhood and community traffic safety committees, and are a way that residents can be involved in ensuring that their neighborhoods are a safe place for drivers, pedestrians, and bicyclists alike. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has also created a helpful guide to starting a traffic safety committee. It is targeted towards a community wide committee but may also be useful to neighborhood committees as well. See http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/portal/ nhtsa_static_file_downloader.jsp?file=/staticfiles/DOT/NHTSA/Traffic%20Injury%20 Control/Articles/Associated%20Files/810915.pdf for more information. Also, the NHTSA website is a valuable resource for information on speeding in general, as well as anti-speeding campaign materials. Pace Car Program Some Neighborhood Traffic Programs also include programs that encourage safe driving. One popular program is the Pace Car Program (Salt Lake City Corporation, 2000). The Pace Car Program is a citizen-based initiative that started in Boise, Idaho, and is being implemented in cities across the country, like Salt Lake City, Santa Cruz, and Boulder. The idea is quite simple: the program uses cars to calm cars, merely by encouraging motorists to abide by existing laws. The two elements of this program are a bumper sticker and a pledge. Pace Car drivers pledge to drive within the speed limit, stop to let pedestrians cross, walk when they can, and do something to their car to make others smile, with the goal of calming drivers rather than streets. They turn their car into a "mobile speed bump." V-24

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES Pace car drivers set a prudent pace for the drivers behind them. If they drive within the speed limit, the cars behind them will do the same. The central core of this program puts the responsibility to drive responsibly in the hands of the motorists. In many cities the Pace Car Program is intended to be a city-wide program, however all the programs specifically emphasize obeying the speed limits and watching for pedestrians on residential streets. Neighborhood Speed Watch Program The Neighborhood Speed Watch Program is another program that encourages safe driving. Speed watch programs are used to address the issue of speeding along residential streets. It is a public awareness program involving the residents of the neighborhood. Typically the concerned residents will request that a speed watch be completed. These programs have been implemented in communities across the country, including in Seattle and Bellevue, Washington, Colorado Springs, and Salt Lake City. See City of Bellevue, Neighborhood Traffic Services (http://www.ci.bellevue.wa.us/traffic_calming.htm) for more information. In Salt Lake City, Neighborhood Speed Watch Program requests are handled by the Transportation Division of the Salt Lake City government. The program was developed in Salt Lake City due to the frequent requests to address the speeding problem on residential streets. Once a request has been made, the Transportation Division loans a radar unit to one of the residents for a 48 hour period. The resident and one other person will then record the speeds of vehicles using the radar unit. Other information, such as license plate number of speeders and time and date of the offense is also noted. This information is then returned to the Transportation Division where it is processed. A letter from the Transportation Division is then sent to the registered owners of all matched vehicles. The letter advises them of the observed speed violation and asks them to encourage drivers of their vehicle to drive within the speed limit when traveling on neighborhood streets. No speeding citations are issued. The Salt Lake City Speed Watch program is fairly typical of all Neighborhood Speed Watch programs throughout the country, with slight variations existing (see Exhibit V-6). EXHIBIT V-6 Strategy Attributes for Implementing Neighborhood Speed Watch/Traffic Management Programs (T) Attribute Description Technical Attributes Target This strategy is targeted at reducing speeding-related crashes on residential streets by encouraging residents to be actively involved. Anecdotal information indicates that offenders on residential streets are residents of those very streets, so they are both the problem and the solution in this strategy. Expected Effectiveness In general, this strategy relies on the assumption that if drivers are made aware of the fact that they are speeding, and of the concerns of the residents who live on those streets, they will reduce their speeds. Also, as part of the NTMP when all other methods are tried and have not succeeded, residents can request traffic calming solutions, such as speed humps or chicanes to mitigate the problem. For further exploration into traffic calming solutions see Strategy E3. V-25

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-6 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Implementing Neighborhood Speed Watch/Traffic Management Programs (T) Attribute Description Keys to Success A primary key to the success of neighborhood traffic safety programs is the willingness of the neighborhood residents to participate in these programs. Residents request and run the programs. They are responsible for distributing materials on the dangers of speeding in neighborhoods and are the people that meet with city officials to discuss the engineering and enforcement options for their streets. Transportation or enforcement agencies may need to publicize the availability of these programs in order to encourage interest in neighborhoods. In addition, once a program is started, transportation or enforcement agencies should periodically check in with the neighborhood committee to ensure that people remain motivated to participate. Potential Difficulties Difficulties include finding funds to run these neighborhood programs, especially if there is not a neighborhood association that generates funds already in existence. Also, apathy on the part of some of the neighborhood residents is a potential difficulty. In general, however, it can be assumed that if speeding is a problem in a neighborhood, residents will want to help mitigate the problem. Appropriate Measures The number of neighborhoods that implement a program is an appropriate process and Data measure for this strategy. Reduction of the number of speeding vehicles and reduction in crashes involving speeding are appropriate measures of the success of this strategy. Associated Needs It may be desirable to have periodic targeted enforcement of speed limits in the neighborhood, to draw further driver attention to the speed limit and to encourage people to obey it. Organizational and Institutional Attributes Organizational, These programs need active participation by the local department of transportation, Institutional and Policy local police department, and most importantly the residents of the affected streets. Issues A procedure for coordinating among these groups should be developed. Issues Affecting This strategy can be implemented in a short amount of time. If a highway or enforcement Implementation Time agency does not have equipment, such as speed trailers, for neighborhoods to use, or if the program involves officers stationed in the neighborhood for a period of time to perform enforcement, implementation time will increase. Costs Involved Costs for implementing this strategy will be relatively low. Costs are related to pamphlets, flyers, posters, signs, or other materials that the residents use to get their message out to the other residents of the neighborhood, and those who drive the streets. Any equipment or enforcement activity would increase costs. Training and Other Some of the residents will require training to participate in the Speed Watch Personnel Needs program. The amount of training varies by city. In general, training in the use of a radar unit, general safety training, and program rules are required by most programs. Legislative Needs None identified. Other Key Attributes Compatibility of This strategy can be used in conjunction with other strategies discussed in this guide. Different Strategies Other Key Attributes to None identified. a Particular Strategy V-26

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES Strategy B5--Implement Safe Community Programs (T) The Safe Communities program model was developed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). A Safe Community is one that promotes traffic injury prevention by involving citizens in addressing key problem areas. Data determines the focus areas and guides the implementation of programs. A multifaceted approach to each problem area includes interventions in each of the four E's--Education, Enforcement, Engineering and Emergency Medical Services. The Safe Communities approach represents a new way community programs are established and managed. All partners participate equally to develop solutions, share successes, assume risks, and build a community structure and process to improve the quality of life in the community through the reduction of injuries and costs. A Safe Community establishes community ownership and support for transportation injury prevention. In doing so, it expands resources and partnerships, and increases program visibility throughout the community. The concept behind a Safe Community is that of collaboration. Many Safe Communities are coalitions. The coalition is made up of concerned citizens, law enforcement, medical staff, and educators combined with existing community groups and programs that have similar missions to that of the Safe Community. One organization typically cannot handle all the traffic safety problems that face a community--but a coalition has a better chance at success. A key to the success of a Safe Community is community involvement. Engaging these other community groups and public entities is critical to its success. The Safe Community concept can be implemented on many different levels. It has been proven effective on the state, county, and community level. Examples of successful programs are the statewide program in North Dakota and a county program in Wright County, Minnesota. The North Dakota program provides resources and information for community programs and coalitions throughout the state. Their website (http://www. safecommunities.org) has a wealth of information available to community programs around North Dakota and the country. Safe Communities of Wright County (http://www. safecomm.org/) was formed in 1997 as a collaborative effort focused on reducing crashes in Wright County, Minnesota, through safety education and prevention. They have chosen to target commuters traveling on 55-mph roadways, and younger drivers. Driver inattention and speeding are two crash factors being targeted by this program. See Exhibit V-7 for further information. EXHIBIT V-7 Strategy Attributes for Implementing Safe Community Programs (T) Attribute Description Technical Attributes Target This strategy targets speeding-related crashes that occur in communities as a whole. These programs require the combined efforts of citizens, law enforcement, public health, medical, injury prevention, education, business, civic and service groups, public works offices, and traffic safety advocates to provide program input, direction, and involvement in the Safe Community program. This also targets existing community programs that have aligning missions that wish to combine to create a coalition. V-27

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-7 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Implementing Safe Community Programs (T) Attribute Description Expected Effectiveness In Norwich, Connecticut, the creation of a Safe Community Coalition in 1997 had a profound effect on traffic crashes in the community. Objectives of this program were to increase public awareness of traffic safety laws, increase traffic enforcement and education efforts, decrease incidents of speeding, and promote safety belt, child safety seat, and bicycle helmet use. In doing so, Norwich experienced a reduction in traffic crashes of 12 percent in 1998 and safety belt use increased from 60 to 92 percent (NHTSA Traffic Safety Digest, Winter 1999). In Sacramento, California, a Neighborhood Traffic Management Program was developed involving eight neighborhoods that were experiencing high speed/high volume traffic that had diverted to their neighborhood streets. The objective of this program was to develop a multi-year plan of engineering, education and enforcement activities that addressed the issues of traffic safety. The citizens of the neighborhoods were involved in developing the program which included design and production of educational materials for both a Traffic Management Class and a Traffic Campaign as well as training for neighborhood leaders. Enforcement was increased, speed limit signs were installed, and new crosswalks were painted. These combined efforts led to an average reduction in speed of 10 mph and reduction of traffic volumes by 15 percent in one neighborhood (NHTSA Safe Communities Service Center). Though any individual treatment or aspect of a Safe Community program may be more effective than another, it is the combined efforts of the strategies and involved people that prove to be successful. Keys to Success A major key to the success of this strategy is the need for a champion, someone who will stick with this program and see that it succeeds. This person should be a part of the leadership team. A communicative and compatible team will be more effective in the long run. Efforts should be made to establish a strong working relationship among team members. Another key to the success of this strategy is citizen involvement. This is important because citizens ensure that local values and attitudes are considered during the process of identifying the injury problems and shaping successful solutions. Potential Difficulties The startup phase of a program such as this is the most critical and is the period when the program is most susceptible to failure. NHTSA provides an excellent guide for starting a Safe Community and what path to follow for success in the first 6 months (http://www.nhtsa.gov/portal/site/nhtsa/menuitem.404f848a3e46fc67ba8e 5f8dcba046a0/). Garnering program funds, especially in smaller communities where funding may not be readily available, is a potential challenge. Appropriate Measures The attainment of success may be measured both in terms of the existence of a Safe and Data Community Program and the involvement within the community. The reduction in crashes, or of injury and fatal crashes, as well as speed reductions and reductions in traffic law violations, are measures of success as well. Associated Needs Educational and awareness programs will require the involvement of specific members of the community, such as the media, local schools, and the medical community. V-28