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50 are responsible for highway maintenance, including interstate earlier decisions to implement an Interstate Asset Management highways under contract with the state DOTs, and share an Framework) is to utilize an implementation reference list such operational need for asset management information. (Michi- as the one provided below: gan is unique in its statutory requirement that local govern- ments implement an asset management approach to managing 1. Implementation: Yea or Nay? (Whether to Implement): all streets and highways in the state.) Currently use asset management tools to establish per- formance goals investment decisions, guide investment Law Enforcement and Emergency Response Organiza- decisions, and monitor performance? tions. In the vast majority of cases, responsibility for law Have experience with and have benefited from risk man- enforcement, environmentally hazardous spills, fire, crash agement methodologies? investigations, emergency evacuations, and other similar man- Recognize potential benefits of differentiating the IHS made or natural emergencies lies with organizations other than from other highways in performing asset management? the highway agency. The importance of addressing the needs 2. Motivating Factors (Why Implement): of these organizations in terms of both prevention as well as Culture Driven? emergency response is self evident. The process of addressing Leadership Driven? such needs in an objective and systematic way can effectively Private Sector Driven? be incorporated into an Interstate Asset Management Frame- Stakeholder Driven? work, particularly if the process is carried out in a collabora- Event Driven? tive way. Other Factors? Regional, Statewide, and Multistate Forums. With the 3. Focus Areas (What to Implement): risks, opportunities, and decisions on resource allocation and Policy & Strategic? operational management of interstate highways invariably Program & Project Priorities? affecting multiple stakeholders, consideration ought to be Operational Management? given to convening a meeting of stakeholders, either on a peri- Functional Categories? odic or as needed basis. Such forums may occur in a variety of Other Focus Areas? ways, from summit meetings among principals to consider 4. Leadership and Implementation Planning (How to policy level issues to operational managers addressing real Implement): time traffic management and emergency response. Within a Lead Office? state such forums might be organized on a regional basis-- Integration? within metropolitan or rural areas, or on a statewide basis. Champions & Communities of Practice? Many states sponsor statewide transportation conferences, Implementation Plan? which might also provide a venue for initiating regional or Objectives statewide forums. Process On a multistate basis, IHS asset management forums might Responsibilities be organized around specific major interstate corridors. In fact, Schedule a number of such multistate corridors have coalesced around Resources the country (I-95, I-15, I-10, and others) to address real-time Progress operational issues as well as long-term economic goals centered 5. Stakeholders and Collaboration (Buy-in for Implementa- on the movement of freight. Such voluntary corridor coalitions tion): are already addressing asset management issues involving Federal? potential major disruptions in service as well as the investment AASHTO? needs associated with heavy growth in freight movement. An MPOs? approach that involves formulating risk-based assessments and Local Government? strategies along multistate interstate corridors would be a nat- Law Enforcement and Emergency Response? ural adjunct to activities already underway or likely to be initi- Regional, Statewide, and Multistate Forum? ated in the foreseeable future along such corridors. 6.4 Benefits of Implementation An Implementation Reference List At the March 13, 2008 workshop conducted as part of this A quick and relatively painless way to develop an IHS research effort, the participants conducted a wide-ranging dis- asset management implementation strategy customized to cussion of the key benefits and challenges that a state DOT each application (as well as a way of assessing and validating would likely encounter in establishing an asset management

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51 program for its IHS. (In reviewing these benefits, and also chal- Strengthen Predictive Performance and Modeling lenges in the following section, it is apparent that a majority of Capability--Bridge and pavement management systems the items relate to asset management generally, rather than the typically include predictive modules that permit agencies to specific benefits and challenges associated with an Interstate model the effects of different levels and types of investments Asset Management Framework. However the full range of top- on asset condition. Focusing on the IHS where the data are ics discussed at the workshop is presented here.) The following often the most reliable and complete will ultimately have benefits were identified by the group (the consultant team has broader benefits to the entire highway network. provided a brief description of each.) Rational Risk Approach--A quantitative approach to char- acterizing risks of system failure and development of risk mitigation strategies are fundamental aspects of an asset General management framework and particularly applicable to the Right Thing To Do--For some agencies the underlying IHS where the consequences of disruption in service can be principles and specific practices of asset management have quite severe. become integral to the way the organization is led and man- Continuous Improvement of a Replicable Process--Asset aged and the way it functions day-to-day, from the head- management establishes a process that can be repeated quarters to the field and across functional areas. annually through each program cycle and provides the basis Defining Roles and Responsibilities for a Sustainable for continued fine-tuning of that process to improve effi- Stewardship Approach--Transportation agencies are ciency and effectiveness. increasingly expected to conduct their activities in a manner that supports broader societal goals to sustain and improve Communication with External Stakeholders the environment. Agencies are accepting these broader responsibilities and asset management provides a frame- Meet Stakeholder Expectations--Asset management work in a systematic, measurable manner. improves an agency's ability to meet stakeholder expecta- Initiate Asset Management Elsewhere--An Interstate Asset tions in terms of both results on the ground and convey- Management Framework can serve as a pilot to test princi- ing an image of an effectively managed results-oriented ples, policies, and procedures as an initial step toward appli- organization. cation to the entire network. Accountability with Customers and Their Elected Representatives--Asset management fosters an environ- ment in which the asset owner establishes a set of expecta- Internal Procedures tions with the public and elected officials and then has its Defined Core Performance Measures--Effective asset performance measured against those expectations. management requires organizations to identify what their Building Consensus in Political Environment--A consis- core performance measures should be and then focus upon tent record of achieving expectations builds consensus in the achievement of those measures to accomplish the orga- the political environment that an agency is effectively man- nization's mission. This would be particularly beneficial for aged and can deliver on its promises. the IHS. Justifying Increased Funding for IHS Projects--Establish- Makes Use of Data and Identifies Data Limitations-- ing credibility in this manner lays the foundation to secure Many agencies collect a great deal of condition and per- approval for increased funding. Several state DOTs have suc- formance data that are not actually applied to any practical cessfully utilized this strategy to enact transportation revenue purpose. Effective asset management will put these data to programs. work and foster a greater understanding of the data's strengths and limitations. Outcomes Defensible Prioritization Approach--Effective asset man- agement facilitates the prioritization of investments based More Effective and Efficient Allocation of Financial and upon systematic data-driven analysis rather than anecdotes. Other Resources--At its foundation, asset management Comprehensive Evaluation, including Improved Eco- is about resource allocation. If it is not influencing the nomic Analysis--Properly conducted, this systematic allocation of resources, its utility has to be questioned. analysis extends beyond traditional measures of asset condi- Improved Performance with Constrained Funding-- tion to include a broader range of considerations, including Application of asset management principles (e.g., early an economic evaluation of costs and benefits. This is par- intervention strategies before significant deterioration ticularly important to the highest order network such as occurs) can lead to improved asset condition even with the IHS. limited funding.