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64 The best examples of performance measure use included a (10) Dryden, L. M., Haggerty, M. S., Lane, L. M. and C. S. Lee. "Model- relatively dynamic set of measures, to address the evolving ing the Impact of Infrastructure Interdependencies on Virginia's Highway Transportation System," 2004 IEEE Systems and Informa- goals of the organization. tion Engineering Design Symposium, IEEE Cat. No.04EX785, 2004. (11) Kiremidjian, A., Moore, J., Fan, Y., Yazlali, O., Basoz, N., and M. International Infrastructure Management Manual (39). Williams. "Seismic Risk Assessment of Transportation Network The goal of this manual is to provide organizations with skills Systems," Journal of Earthquake Engineering, Volume 11, Num- to monitor their assets cost-effectively. A series of steps is pro- ber 3, 2007. posed to plan, prepare, and develop asset management within (12) Shiraki, N., Shinozuka, M., Moore, J. E., Chang, S. E., Kameda, H., an organization. Based on the manual, in order for an agency and S. Tanaka. "System Risk Curves: Probabilistic Performance to implement asset management, the organization should Scenarios for Highway Networks Subject to Earthquake Damage," Journal of Infrastructure Systems, Volume 13, Number 1, 2007. define: i) the levels of service for each of its assets, the current (13) Patidar, V, Labi, S. Sinha, K. C. and P. NCHRP Report 590: levels of service, the customers' expected levels and the levels Multiple-Objective Optimization for Bridge Management Systems, the customers are willing to pay for; ii) forecast future demand; Contractor's Final Report for NCHRP Project 12-67, 2007. and iii) determine the physical condition and current utiliza- (14) Cambridge Systematics, Inc. and Michael D. Meyer. U.S. Domestic tion of its assets. The organization should also communicate Scan Program: Best Practices in Transportation Asset Management, Scan Tour Report, NCHRP Project 20-68, 2007. with its customers to define their expectations. The manual (15) FHWA. Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS) Reassess- also proposes a process for collecting and managing data. A ment 2010+ Final Recommendations Report, 2008. framework is proposed to enable an organization to determine (16) Markow, Michael J. NCHRP Synthesis 371: Managing Selected how an asset may fail to achieve its expected level of service. Transportation Assets: Signals, Lighting, Signs, Pavement Markings, Determining the failure mode of an asset can help the organi- Culverts, and Sidewalks, 2007. zation in monitoring the asset. Likewise, the manual addresses (17) FHWA. Culvert Management Systems: Alabama, Maryland, Min- nesota, and Shelby County, 2007. the issue of identifying and evaluating risks related to an asset. (18) FHWA. Highway and Rail Transit Tunnel Inspection Manual, 2005. The manual provides examples of asset management in Aus- (19) FHWA. Guidelines for the Installation, Maintenance, and Repair, of tralia and New Zealand. Structural Supports for Highway Signs, Luminaries, and Traffic Sig- nals, 2007. (20) Hearn, George. Feasibility of a Management System for Retaining A.4 References Walls and Sound Barriers, Report CDOT-DTD-R-2003-8 prepared (1) Science Applications International Corp. 2002 AASHTO Guide to for the Colorado Department of Transportation, 2003. Highway Vulnerability Assessment for Critical Asset Identification (21) Applied Pavement Technology, Inc. Use of Highway Maintenance and Protection, Contractor's Final Report prepared for NCHRP Management Systems in State Highway Agencies, 2006. Project 20-07/Task 151B, 2002. (22) Ziering, E., Harrison, F., Scarponcini, P., InfoTech, Inc., (2) Science Applications International Corp. and PB Consult. Guide to Michael Baker Jr., Inc. and C. E. Campbell. NCHRP Report 576: Risk Management of Multimodal Transportation Infrastructure, TransXML--XML Schemas for Exchange of Transportation Data, Draft Final Report prepared for NCHRP Project 20-59(17), 2007. Contractor's Final Report for NCHRP Project 20-64, 2007. (3) Cesare, M., Santamarina, J. C., Turkstra, C. J., and E. Vanmarcke. (23) AASHTO-AGC-ARTBA Joint Committee, Asset Management Data "Risk-Based Bridge Management," Journal of Transportation Engi- Collection Guide: Task Force 45 Report, 2006. neering, Volume 119, Number 5, 1993. (24) Cambridge Systematics, Inc., PB Consult, and System Metrics (4) Ray, J. C. "Risk-Based Prioritization of Terrorist Threat Mitigation Group, Inc. NCHRP Report 545: Analytical Tools for Asset Manage- Measures on Bridges," Journal of Bridge Engineering, Volume 12, ment, Contractor's Final Report for NCHRP Project 20-57, 2005. Number 2, 2007. (25) Hugh Hawk. NCHRP Report 483: Bridge Life-Cycle Cost Analysis, (5) Flaig, K. D. and R. J. Lark. "A Risk-Based Decision-Support Sys- Contractor's Final Report for NCHRP Project 12-43, 2003. tem for Bridge Management," Proceedings of the Institute of Civil (26) Flintsch, G., Dymond, R. and J. Collura. NCHRP Synthesis 335: Engineers: Bridge Engineering, Volume 158, Number 3, 2005. Pavement Management Applications Using Geographic Information (6) Dicdican, R. Y., Haimes, Y. Y., and J. H. Lambert. Risk-Based Asset Systems, 2004. Management Methodology for Highway Infrastructure Systems, Vir- (27) AASHTO. Guidelines for Maintenance Management Systems, 2005. ginia Transportation Research Council, Virginia Department of (28) Friedman, David, Monteith, M. C., Kay, D. H., Couts, V. B., Transportation, 2004. Trombly, J. W., Bratvold, D., and I. Hirshmann. NCHRP Report (7) Ng, M. F., Tummala, V. M. and R. Yam. "A Risk-Based Mainte- 525 Volume 11: Disruption Impact Estimating Tool--Transportation nance Management Model for Toll Road/Tunnel Operations," Con- (DIETT)--A Tool for Prioritizing High-Value Transportation Choke struction Management and Economics, Volume 21, Number 5, 2003. Points, Contractor's Final Report Prepared for NCHRP Project (8) Salem, O., Abourizk, S., and S. Ariaratnam. "Risk-Based Life-Cycle 20-59(9), 2006. Costing of Infrastructure Rehabilitation and Construction Alterna- (29) Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Parsons Brinckerhoff and Venner tives," Journal of Infrastructure Systems, Volume 9, Number 1, 2003. Consulting, Inc. Final Report for NCHRP Research Results Digest (9) Crowther, K. G., Dicdican, R. Y., Leung, M. F., Lian, C. and 317: Prototype Software for an Environmental Information Manage- Williams, G. M., Assessing and Managing Risk of Terrorism to Vir- ment and Decision Support System, NCHRP Web-Only Document ginia's Interdependent Transportation Systems, Report: VTRC-05- 103, Contractor's Final Report for NCHRP Project 25-23(2), CR6 prepared for FHWA and Virginia DOT, 2004. 2006.

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65 (30) Cambridge Systematics, Inc., PB Consult, and Texas Transporta- structure Performance, National Academy Press, Washington, tion Institute. NCHRP Report 551: Performance Measures and Tar- D.C., 1995. gets for Transportation Asset Management, Contractor's Final (35) FHWA. Status of the Nation's Highways, Bridges, and Transit: 2006 Report for NCHRP Project 20-60, 2006. Conditions and Performance Report, 2006. (31) Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Texas Transportation Institute, (36) U.S. Department of Transportation. Fiscal Year 2006 Performance University of Washington and Dowling Associates. NCHRP and Accountability Report, 2006. Web-Only Document 97: Guide to Effective Freeway Performance (37) FHWA. Transportation Asset Management in Australia, Canada, Measurement--Final Report and Guidebook, Contractor's Final England, and New Zealand, 2005. Report for NCHRP Project 3-68, 2006. (38) FHWA, American Trade Initiatives, and LGB and Associates, Inc. (32) AASHTO. Measuring Performance Among State DOTs, 2006. Transportation Performance Measures in Australia, Canada, Japan, (33) Padgette, Robert. Effective Organization of Performance Manage- and New Zealand, 2004. ment, Contractor's Final Report for NCHRP Project 8-36(47), 2006. (39) NZ National Asset Management Steering (NAMS) Group, Insti- (34) National Research Council Board on Infrastructure and the tute of Public Works Engineering of Australia (IPWEA). Interna- Constructed Environment. Measuring and Improving Infra- tional Infrastructure Management Manual, 2000.