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ACRP AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 13 Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Integrating Airport Information Systems

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ACRP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2009 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS James Wilding CHAIR: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Independent Consultant VICE CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington VICE CHAIR EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board Jeff Hamiel MinneapolisSt. Paul MEMBERS Metropolitan Airports Commission J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY MEMBERS Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg James Crites Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson DallasFort Worth International Airport Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Richard de Neufville Norfolk, VA Massachusetts Institute of Technology William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Kevin C. Dolliole Unison Consulting David S. Ekern, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond John K. Duval Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Beverly Municipal Airport Virginia, Charlottesville Kitty Freidheim Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Freidheim Consulting Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Steve Grossman Oakland International Airport Will Kempton, Director, California DOT, Sacramento Tom Jensen Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City National Safe Skies Alliance Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Catherine M. Lang Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Federal Aviation Administration Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Gina Marie Lindsey Los Angeles World Airports Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Carolyn Motz Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Bentonville, AR Hagerstown Regional Airport Rosa Clausell Rountree, Consultant, Tyrone, GA Richard Tucker Steve T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Huntsville International Airport Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando Sabrina Johnson Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Richard Marchi Airports Council International--North America EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Laura McKee Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Air Transport Association of America Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Henry Ogrodzinski National Association of State Aviation Officials George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York Melissa Sabatine University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC American Association of Airport Executives James E. Caponiti, Acting Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Robert E. Skinner, Jr. Cynthia Douglass, Acting Deputy Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Transportation Research Board Administration, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the SECRETARY Interior, Washington, DC Christopher W. Jenks Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC Transportation Research Board John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC Rose A. McMurry, Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Ronald Medford, Acting Deputy Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Lynne A. Osmus, Acting Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Jeffrey F. Paniati, Acting Deputy Administrator and Executive Director, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT Steven K. Smith, Acting Deputy Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT Jo Strang, Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC Matthew Welbes, Executive Director and Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT *Membership as of November 2008. *Membership as of February 2009.

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 13 Integrating Airport Information Systems Christine Stocking Jim DeLong Vicki Braunagel Tom Healy AERO TECH CONSULTING, INC. Lakewood, CO AND Steve Loper AMADEUS CONSULTING, INC. Boulder, CO Subject Areas Planning and Administration Aviation Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2009 www.TRB.org

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 13 Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- Project 01-03 portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter- ISSN 1935-9802 national commerce. They are where the nation's aviation system ISBN: 978-0-309-11773-9 connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon- Library of Congress Control Number 2009922043 sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most 2009 Transportation Research Board airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera- COPYRIGHT PERMISSION tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously to meet demands placed on it. published or copyrighted material used herein. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera- acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro- the material, request permission from CRP. gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainte- nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, NOTICE and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport opera- tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary partici- Board's judgment that the project concerned is appropriate with respect to both the pants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP purposes and resources of the National Research Council. Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and to review Department of Transportation with representation from airport oper- this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration ating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical panel, they are not Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), and the Air Transport necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the Federal Aviation Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. Association (ATA) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel according to (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, Council, and the Federal Aviation Administration (sponsor of the Airport Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga- names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon- completeness of the project reporting. sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden- tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro- fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre- pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and Published reports of the selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper- AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP are available from: project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the Transportation Research Board Business Office intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service 500 Fifth Street, NW providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research Washington, DC 20001 reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work- and can be ordered through the Internet at shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 13 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Hilary Freer, Senior Editor Andra Briere, Editor ACRP PROJECT 01-03 PANEL Field of Administration Scott A. Brockman, MemphisShelby County Airport Authority, Memphis, TN (Chair) Bradford S. Bowman, Bowman Group, Chatsworth, CA Phillip D. Brodt, GCR Associates, Inc., New Orleans, LA John K. Duval, Beverly Municipal Airport, Beverly, MA Anita Eldridge, Sarasota Manatee Airport Authority, Sarasota, FL Kimberly Jones, Dane County Regional Airport, Madison, WI Don Snider, Wichita Airport Authority, Wichita, KS David Suomi, FAA Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison

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FOREWORD By Michael R. Salamone Staff Officer Transportation Research Board ACRP Report 13: Integrating Airport Information Systems is a handbook that provides valuable analysis and recommendations that can help lead airports toward fully integrated information systems in the near future. The handbook describes a vision for the future and a series of steps that can lead to eventual and successful integration projects. It explores myriad information sources and their unique data elements, the value to the airport decision-maker, and strategies that can help capture this business-critical infor- mation for use in synergistic ways. The handbook examines new technology such as facial recognition kiosks, smart board passes, intelligent wireless sensors, advanced wireless technology, and intelligent video recognition software. The report is not intended to present specifics for integrating infor- mation systems for any airport; rather it suggests a path to successful integration by edu- cating airport decision-makers on the value of integration and inspiring adoption and adaptation of basic concepts and best practices that can help airports integrate portions of their data/information environment. The handbook will be of interest to airport managers and information technology professionals. The accurate, properly formatted, and timely reporting of airport activity and financial data is critical to managing today's airports effectively. These data are necessary to meet operational needs properly and to make informed business decisions. Currently, industry practices for gathering and processing this information vary significantly across airport cat- egory or even among airports within the same category. A lack of consistent, accurate, and timely information is a direct result of a lack of applied technology and overall standardized industry practices to define and gather information. In addition, although large, complex airports need more sophisticated data, airports of all sizes need certain minimum data to manage their facilities effectively. Demonstrated issues related to collecting, processing, integrating, and defining data keep airports from realizing the full value of completely integrating information. Under ACRP Project 1-03, Aero Tech Consulting, Inc. (ATCI) was asked to describe a vision of how this business-critical information can be fully integrated (e.g., cross-utilized between different information systems). ATCI presents a broad summary of current prac- tice and plotted a course to such an integrated IT future.

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 4 Chapter 1 Vision for a Fully Integrated Airport 4 Introduction 4 Vision 6 Handbook Overview 7 Chapter 2 Current State of the Industry 7 Research Findings 7 Phased Integration 7 Integration of Financial and Operational Data 8 Common-Use Environment 8 Data Gaps 8 Billing from Flight Data 9 Passenger Fees 9 Space Planning and Physical Facilities 9 Concessions 10 Intelligent Sensor Technology 10 Radio Frequency Technology 10 Bar Coding 10 Video Analytics 11 Next-Generation Air Transportation System 12 Adaptive Compression 12 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise Program 12 Airport Lease Agreements 13 Rates and Charges 13 Standards for Communicating and Using Airport Information 13 Recommended Practices 14 Common-Use Passenger Processing Systems 14 Airport Operational Databases 14 Extensible Markup Language 15 Collaboration and Sharing Information 16 Chapter 3 Best Practices for Integration 17 Stakeholders 17 Integration Steps 18 Case Study Examples 18 Step 1: Define Business Objectives and Identify Information Needs 20 Step 2: Identify, Define, and Evaluate Information Processes 21 Step 3: Determine Who "Owns" the Data and Identify the Systems 23 Step 4: Define Success and How to Measure It 23 Step 5: Define All of the Business Rules 25 Step 6: Perform a Gap Analysis

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26 Step 7: Evaluate the Non-Financial Costs and Benefits of Integration 27 Step 8: Evaluate the Financial Costs and Benefits of Integration 28 Step 9: Determine an Effective Integration Strategy and Technologies 30 Step 10: Implement the Strategy and Technologies 30 Step 11: Test, Evaluate, and Follow Up 32 Step 12: Maintain the Systems 32 Setting Milestones 34 Chapter 4 Airport Information 34 Finance and Administration 34 Overview 36 Significant Metrics from Finance and Administration Business-Critical Information 37 Operations 37 Overview 41 Significant Metrics from Operations Business-Critical Information 43 Maintenance 43 Overview 46 Significant Metrics from Maintenance Business-Critical Information 47 Engineering 47 Overview 50 Significant Metrics from Engineering Business-Critical Information 51 Security 51 Overview 54 Significant Metrics from Security Business-Critical Information 54 Public Relations 54 Overview 56 Significant Metrics from Public Relations Business-Critical Information 57 Chapter 5 Airport Systems 57 Data Processes 57 Integration Failure Example 58 Research Conclusions 58 Data 58 Data Processes 58 Standards 58 Phased Approach 59 Data Rules 59 Disparate Data Sources 59 Official Airline Guide 59 Airline Direct Feed 60 FAA Direct Feed 60 Flight Information Display System 60 Summary of Data Sources 60 Systems Examination 62 Systems Examination Exercise 64 Information System Samples 70 Chapter 6 Architecture, Strategies, Technologies, and Contracts 70 Systems Architecture 70 Open Architecture Systems

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71 Protocols 71 Legacy Systems 72 Integration Strategies and Technologies 72 Integration Strategies 74 Integration Technologies 76 Software Contracts 76 End-User Object Code Software License Contract 76 Software Maintenance Agreement 76 Software Escrow Agreement 77 Enterprise Software Agreement 78 Chapter 7 Manager's Dashboard 78 The Dashboard 79 Dashboard Indicators 79 SMART Indicators 79 Sample Dashboards 84 Glossary