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10 Integrating Airport Information Systems has integrated their concession information in a common-use system that feeds information into their financial management system. Intelligent Sensor Technology Intelligent sensor technologies are increasingly available to airports. Imagine a passenger goes directly to a kiosk check-in. The kiosk uses advanced facial recognition algorithms and the pas- senger's fingerprint and iris are scanned. The passenger is issued a smart boarding pass that con- tains a smart chip. This chip contains all the information about that passenger, the flight, and gate, and allows access through the international access control points all the way through to the gate. The passenger's passport is scanned and the data are integrated with the border con- trol agencies software system. Once at the gate, intelligent wireless sensors, with built-in memory, collect the data indicat- ing the passenger has gone through the gate access control door and is boarding the aircraft. These advanced sensors contain plug-in functions (called intelligent nodes) including advanced wireless communication technology and intelligent video recognition software (Bluetooth®, sonar, radar, and camera input). These software solutions are fully integrated with the airports access control systems, advanced wireless networks, and the border control agency. Radio Frequency Technology Airports are also beginning to adapt to emerging technologies and, in some cases, melding old with new. RF technologies can be paired with newer systems and emerging software to enable airports to track equipment, baggage, commercial vehicles, parking data, and many other aspects of an airport's operation. With radio frequency identification (RFID), radio waves transmit data from a small tag embedded in equipment, products, and vehicles. A technology called "chip-less RFID" allows data to be written directly on the tag to track history, parts, maintenance, and access. Bar Coding Some airports are using two-dimensional (2-D) bar codes to encode data in standardized for- mats. The standardization of bar code technologies enables data transfer to many different sys- tems. Airlines can send 2-D bar codes to a passenger's mobile phone to serve as the passenger's boarding pass. Historically, bar code applications for mobile phone technology have been restricted because mobile phone companies used data technologies that were not compatible. However, the Inter- national Air Transport Association (IATA) Resolution 792 specified the use of Portable Data File 417, and IATA developed a standard for 2-D bar codes. This data format standard for 2-D bar codes makes data exchange technology cost-effective and readily available and enables single-scanner types and mobile devices to read data from the three proven and widely used technologies--Aztec, Datamatrix, and Quick Response. Video Analytics Airports are also using innovative technology such as video analytics to capture data. For example, some airports are testing the use of video analytics to analyze behavior, objects, or atti- tude. Video analytics algorithms are integrated with systems called Intelligent Video Software. This technology can evaluate the contents of video to determine user-specified information about the content of that video. It has a wide range of applications including airport safety and