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Current State of the Industry 11 security. Video analytics applications are used at today's airports to perform the following data capture tasks: Count the number of pedestrians who enter a door or geographic region; Determine the location, speed, and direction of travel; Identify suspicious movement of people or assets; Inventory license plates; and Evaluate how long a package has been left in an area. As mentioned earlier in the discussion of passenger fees, airports are also using video analytics technology to count the number of enplaning and deplaning passengers. Next-Generation Air Transportation System The Next-Generation Air Transportation System fully integrates information that airports and airlines need. Decisionmakers can see beyond the airstrip and monitor the activity on con- courses, in the parking lots, and at the gates. This level of integration and various software tools could enhance security and increase revenues as rates and charges become more accurate. Airport Surface Detection EquipmentModel X (ASDE-X) pulls information from several sur- veillance sources including radar, Automatic Dependant Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) sensors, and transponders on the aircraft themselves. New enhancements and the introduction of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) capture the positioning of aircraft and surface vehicles at airports. ASDE-X can also be used with the FAA's new software management tools (such as FAA's Surface Management system, which extends surface monitoring beyond the runways to the ramp areas of an airport). This enables an airport to capture the activity of aircraft and vehicles on the ramp and at the gate. This Surface Management system essentially extends ASDE-X to provide a detailed understanding of the areas in and around an airport. These technologies can result in the integration of information so that all areas of the airport, not just the runways, are under constant monitoring, assessment, and analysis. The FAA toolbox of new technology also includes satellite-based approaches called Area Nav- igation and Required Navigation Performance. These tools enable precise approaches at airports when the proper procedures are in place. The FAA has authorized over 200 new Area Navigation procedures at 62 airports. The Next-Generation Air Transportation System provides decisionmakers with a deeper level of understanding by monitoring and assembling key data points from all areas of the airport. With a detailed understanding of all movement and activity, airports can more effectively and efficiently charge for their services. Part of this plan includes ADS-B. The FAA upgrade solution for improving the present Air Traffic Control system is the Next- Generation Air Transportation System, and ADS-B technology is at its heart. For airports, the implications of this system are profound. The system, based on satellite positioning of both air- craft and ground-based equipment, enables operators of planes and vehicles to immediately ascertain the location of all others in their vicinity. From an operational perspective, emergency response vehicles and operations vehicles can safely move across the airfield in minimum visibility conditions. Likewise, aircraft taxiing on the ground will ultimately be aware of all other aircraft and ground equipment maneuvering airside when all software solutions have been implemented. Logistically, when all vehicles and aircraft are equipped with ADS-B, airlines as well as airport operators will be able to dispatch necessary resources on a just-in-time basis. This will translate into lower costs and operations that are more efficient.