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26 Integrating Airport Information Systems After these gaps have been identified, create a plan for addressing them. Some gaps can be addressed simply, by process changes. For example, a missing piece of data can be collected and entered into an existing system. Other gaps can require some attention during the integration process, such as resolving conflicting business rules when two systems are integrated. Larger gaps can require additional systems to be built or acquired. Next, estimate the costs of each of the steps necessary to address the gaps. Some of these cost estimates might be straightforward or negligible because they are a natural outcome of the inte- gration process. Others might not be so straightforward, such as developing custom systems or acquiring commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software. In these cases, a detailed build-versus-buy analysis must be performed to determine whether a custom system should be built or a COTS system is more appropriate. For more information on build-versus-buy analysis, see Chapter 6, Architecture, Strategies, Technologies, and Contracts. Case Study Step 6 In Step 5, the AIA integration team identified dozens of business rules that applied to the calculation of the rates and charges and defined the data required to comply with the rules, as well as the sources of the data. Their gap analysis showed that the data from the maintenance work order system was frequently in conflict with the labor rates data in the HR payroll system. The team members from each division met to find a way to resolve the conflict. The resolution called for integration of the payroll system with the work order system and re-defining the business and data rules. After the gap analysis was complete, the Project Manager created an updated project plan and cost estimate for the project. After reviewing the project plan and cost estimate, the CFO agreed that the project should proceed. Step 7: Evaluate the Non-Financial Costs and Benefits of Integration Figure 3-9 indicates the level of effort of the stakeholders for this step. Understanding the non-financial benefits of integrating can enhance decision-making and help an airport justify an integration effort. Examples of such benefits include improvement in the customer service complaint areas or the ability to become more proactive in an industry accustomed to rapid changes. Ask the data owners how integration will make them more effi- cient. For example, will it reduce the amount of time spent correcting or re-entering data from one system to another and free them for more complex work? If the data owner is a part of the process, it might be easier for him or her to champion the integration efforts. As noted in Step 2, Identify, Define, and Evaluate Information Processes, when a process is going to change, it will be more positively received if the change benefits the stakeholder. Figure 3-9. Step 7.