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28 Integrating Airport Information Systems is important to proper budgeting. (For further detail of these types of charges, see Step 12, Main- tain the Systems.) General Infrastructure. Several elements of the general infrastructure need to be evaluated before integration begins. Will the current network infrastructure support the integrated sys- tem being proposed? Is there enough power and backup power for the solution? With answers to these questions, decisionmakers can modify the approach to integration, and additional network infrastructure can be factored in as a cost of the project. Backups and Disaster Recovery. Is there an existing backup and disaster recovery plan? Does that plan need to be modified to accommodate the integrated system being proposed? If the new system will be relied on for daily operations, this reliance may introduce significant backup and disaster recovery needs that did not previously exist. At this point, most costs are known and the benefits should be well defined. The evaluation of the costs and benefits should be rigorous and thorough. The following steps in integration will require major financial commitments for hardware, software, and outside services. It is imper- ative that this rigorous evaluation result in a go-no-go decision. The costs and benefits to the air- port as a whole should be analyzed because costs and benefits probably will not be equal for each of the individual divisions. Often, one division will gain more of the benefits while other divi- sions will bear a larger share of the cost. However, if all the airport-wide benefits outweigh the costs, the project is justified and reasonable. Case Study Step 8 The CFO and Project Manager prepared an assessment of the estimated financial costs and benefits of the projects. Their assessment answered the following questions which they knew would be posed by the CEO: Will we reduce spending in personnel and equipment costs when the integration process is completed, and if so, by how much? Are you able to quantify the cost associated with errors and untimely completion of the landing fee calculation? Do we have the staff to implement the system or will consultants be required, and if so, what will they cost? What will be the cost of the new hardware and software, and what are the 5-year estimates of the maintenance and operations costs? Will the airlines support paying for this investment, and if not, how do you propose to finance this effort? After a detailed cost-benefit review was complete to the satisfaction of all parties, the CEO agreed to move forward with the project. Step 9: Determine an Effective Integration Strategy and Technologies Figure 3-11 indicates the level of effort of the stakeholders for this step. As the actual system integration effort begins, the tasks become more technical in nature and will probably require professional consulting and IT resources. During Step 3, Determine Who "Owns" the Data and Identify the Systems, each system was identified and the system architec- ture delineated for each process and data requirement. In Step 9, the stakeholders evaluate the integrated system architecture.

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Best Practices for Integration 29 Figure 3-11. Step 9. To evaluate the system architecture, the IT resources look at each system and identify the tech- nologies available to use in the integration process. (For more information on integration tech- nologies, see Chapter 6, Architecture, Strategies, Technologies and Contracts.) This can include evaluating system architecture for any COTS that will be purchased, as well as any COTS or custom software already in place. The result will be that, for each system identified, the IT professionals have evaluated what different technologies are available to use to integrate this particular system. This is also an appropriate time to determine any costs associated with the integration technologies. Now all the information necessary to choose an integration strategy has been collected. There are many different strategies for integration (some of the most frequently used are listed in Chapter 6). Before stakeholders evaluate an integration strategy, determine the following aspects of the strategy: How is this strategy commonly used? What are the strengths and weaknesses of this strategy? What technologies are usually used to support this strategy? Then answer the following questions: Do the strengths and weaknesses of the integration strategy match the business objectives? Does each of the systems identified have available technologies that support the integration strategy? During this evaluation process, many tradeoffs probably will need to be made. For example, a specific business objective might have to be sacrificed in choosing an integration strategy that, while it meets many of the other objectives well, does not allow for integration of important data to meet that specific objective. Another example is that, while the integration of a particular sys- tem is possible, the licensing costs are out of line with the benefits. Case Study Step 9 Having analyzed the complexities and architecture of each of the systems, the Proj- ect Manager next reviewed the technologies available and discussed with the team and the IT professionals which strategy would be the most appropriate to use. After examining the advantages and disadvantages of Data Warehousing, Enterprise Information Integration (EII), and Enterprise Application Integration (EAI), the team elected to acquire EII software, to enable the airport to access multiple systems in an integrated manner, while not disturbing data stored in each of the systems. This distributed data approach permits the divisions to operate their systems on their equipment with only that data necessary for integration leaving and entering their local environment.