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Airport Information 37 employee, and cost per flight operation. Similarly, actual revenues generated by airline sources, such as landing fees, ground rents, and terminal rents, are compared with planned revenues to provide important information for proactive decision-making by airport management. When calculated as a percentage of total revenues received and shown on a per-activity basis, non- airline revenues received from concessions and non-airline tenants can provide management early feedback. Traffic statistics are critical information that affect the airport's financial status and facilities planning and are essential to senior management. Trust indentures or bond ordi- nances usually require management to calculate specific formulas to ensure that the revenues being generated are sufficient to cover all obligations including debt service. For many airport managers, return-on-investment metrics are helpful for master planning and commercial devel- opment issues. Customer service metrics, such as the number of complaints per airport process, security wait times, and international arrival delays, can drive the allocation of scarce resources to the areas of greatest need. All these metrics require accurate and timely access to the Finance and Administration business- critical information presented in Tables 4-1 through 4-5. Operations Overview The Operations functional area includes the following divisions: Airside, Landside, Ground Transportation, and Parking. Often security badge processing and law enforcement fall within the Operations functional area. These Operations divisions are line functions of the airport, which frequently represent Operations senior management when they are not present. Information technology used by these divisions normally involves data collection and display, rather than com- putation. Operations will normally have direct access to FAA and National Oceanic and Atmo- spheric Administration (NOAA) databases, as well as terminal FIDS, to track changing conditions on the airfield. Some airports have successfully instituted telemetric systems where actual obser- vations of airfield conditions are relayed to key airport personnel using wireless technology. The Airside division of Operations is responsible for ensuring that all aspects of the aircraft movement area remain in an airworthy and safe condition. This includes the obligation to main- tain the airport's certification under Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 139. To obtain a certificate, an airport operator must agree to certain operational and safety standards and provide for such things as firefighting and rescue equipment. The Airside Duty Officer coordinates the joint responses of police, fire, medical, and airfield emergency operations and understands that safety is the most important responsibility. The Airside division also delivers reports to the appropriate agencies, files reports in the form of a NOTAM, maintains the facility in a safe condition, and closes any unsafe areas. This division also ensures that those permitted access to the movement areas of the airport are properly trained and equipped and understand their responsibilities. This division is also responsible for several activities, training exercises, and planning efforts such as Preparing ecology plans to minimize bird hazards, Writing emergency plans for any incidents associated with aircraft operations, Developing plans for the handling and storage of hazardous materials, Writing snow removal plans, Hot fire drills, Emergency exercises, in coordination with fire officials, and Ensuring that contractors working within the AOA abide by rules and regulations that pertain to movement, marking, and voice procedures.

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38 Integrating Airport Information Systems Table 4-1. Business-critical information for accounting. Business-critical Key Data information data elements Metrics source Expenditures (actual to Expenditures by object code and Operating expenditures and Accounts payable budget) budgets by object code (by division) capital expenditures per records and budget passenger (PAX), enplaned documents passenger (EP), origin and destination (O&D) passenger, operation, employee Revenue (actual to budget) All revenues by source; budget Gross revenue per PAX, EP, Accounts receivable forecasts by source; sources of O&D, operation, employee records and budget revenues (components) include documents Concession revenue per PAX, (1) Non-airline/other: other-interest EP, O&D, square footage of income; federal and state grants; leased space commercial paper and debt proceeds; security reimbursement Airline revenue as percentage of from Transportation Security gross revenue Administration (TSA); non-airline (concession revenue, parking Non-airline revenue as a revenue, rental car facility revenue, percentage of gross revenue commercial development revenue) Parking revenue per EP, O&D, (2) Airline: airfield ramp and service parking space charges, landing fees, building and Ground transportation revenue ground rental revenue, terminal rent per EP, O&D, employee and charges, passenger facility charges (PFCs), fuel charges and taxes Reserve fund levels Operating, capital, bond, or debt Bond covenant requirements Financial reserves management system; audited financials Accounts receivable Amount of accounts receivable by NA Accounts receivable carrier; percentage of accounts records and budget receivable 90 days past due; results documents of collection efforts Annual budget(s) Total operating budget; capital Expected total cost per Accounting division budget and annual debt service enplanement, per PAX; expected records; financial requirements operating revenues-to-debt management software service ratio (debt service coverage) Total debt; percentage of variable Debt-to-capital ratio; debt per Accounting division rate debt; bond rating EP; debt-to-revenue ratio records, financial advisor reports, rating agencies Key rates and charges (1) Landing fee: components of the All metrics using airline costs Accounting division key data (assuming residual rate- (cost per enplanement, airline records, financial making) are airfield operating and revenue as a percentage of total management software, maintenance costs from budget revenue, etc.) will use these planning subdivision source, annual airfield debt service, airline rates and charges as a analyses miscellaneous airfield revenues by base source, number of estimated aircraft landings by certificated weight (2) Terminal rental rate components of the key data are terminal complex square footage by category (such as airline leasable, concession, public, etc,); terminal complex operating and maintenance costs from budget sources; budget forecasted terminal complex revenues by source (continued)

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Airport Information 39 Table 4-1. (Continued). Business-critical Key Data information data elements Metrics source Plan of finance for capital (1) Anticipated project costs by Debt-to-capital ratio; debt per Financial and projects project(s): estimated EP; debt-to-revenue ratio; feasibility studies design/construction cost; other projected impact on cost per anticipated costs including financing enplanement; coverage ratios costs (2) Project funding by source: anticipated federal grants and PFCs; interest earnings anticipated during construction; debt to be issued, cash, etc. (3) Feasibility: forecasted annual gross revenues during feasibility period Advance warning of a Financial reports on airlines; Airline financial possible air carrier overdue account receivables; reports (SEC reports); bankruptcy substantial decrease in passenger consultant reports; traffic or air operations; costs per account receivable and enplanement by airline; market cost per enplanement share analyses reports from accounting; activity reports from operations division (passenger and flight operations) Traffic statistics (1) PAX data: total passengers; All metrics using passenger Airline self-reporting; EP; deplaned passengers; counts (PAX, EP, O&D), aircraft operations records of connecting passengers by airline; operations (landings, takeoffs, aircraft landings and O&D passengers by airline total aircraft), or gate usage departures; gate (operations per gate) management systems; (2) Operations data: aircraft landings financial billings by aircraft type; aircraft departures by aircraft type; total aircraft operations; aircraft gate usage (turns) by airline; aircraft gate usage by type of equipment; on-time arrivals/departures by aircraft; deicing time Several systems, under development or in full operation, will improve situational awareness for operations at an airport. These systems include ADS-B, Automated Radar Terminal System (ARTS) III, Surface Management System, and ASDE-X. For a detailed narrative on these emerg- ing technologies, see Chapter 2, Current State of the Industry. The Landside division of Operations typically allocates airport-controlled facilities, including remote hard-stand parking, ticket counters, gates, aprons, and baggage facilities. Some airports create spreadsheets after receiving scheduling data from the airlines, OAG, and FIDS. However, some airports use relatively sophisticated gate management software to access and record sched- ules, reallocate gates and aprons, assign gate-related support equipment, and monitor passenger activity passing through the Federal Inspection Services (FIS). This division also ensures that any unauthorized entry through passageways that lead to the AOA is quickly detected and resolved. This division relies heavily on the access control system, including Closed Circuit Television (CCTV), security sensors, Automated Vehicle Identification (AVI), and direct observation by air- port staff. Transponders are issued to vehicles that are part of the system, and billing originates from Finance, based on the type of vehicle and frequency with which that unit passes through the

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40 Integrating Airport Information Systems Table 4-2. Business-critical information for administration. Business-critical Key Data information data elements Metrics source Purchasing information (1) Requisitions by budgeted Efficiency metrics, such as Contract and amount, actual cost, time in process operating costs per employee, purchase tracking cost of delay in acquiring goods records (2) Contracts for major services by or services expiration date, budgeted amount, actual cost Competitiveness of airport Sampling of rates/fees at similar Comparative metrics, cost per Airport industry airports, such as landing fees, enplanement, landings fees, etc., benchmarking surveys, terminal rent per square foot, to gauge strength of competition staff research, airline baggage system fees, train fees, for air service reports costs per enplaned passenger, operating costs per employee Risk and safety information Accident rates by division; Costs per accident; injury rates Risk and insurance insurance claims by number and per activity; injury/accident records amount; injuries by type; vehicle trends damage by type and amount; workers' comp claims by type and amount; trend graphs airport sensors. The Landside division ensures that all vehicles are in fact using these devices or paying through another manual system. The Ground Transportation division of operations is responsible for monitoring the activity of all commercial vehicles in and around the airport. The responsibilities of this division over- lap considerably with the Landside division, with emphasis on access control systems, tracking of movement, and security of commercial vehicles and their drivers. AVI technology is frequently used to control commercial vehicle movement on airport property, track the number of visits, and generate accurate billing. Table 4-3. Business-critical information for human resources. Business-critical Key Data information data elements Metrics source Personnel statistics Personnel budget (total and by Total annual PAX per full-time HR records division); budgeted full-time employee; labor cost per full-time employee positions (total and by employee; maintenance expense division); filled full-time employee per full-time employee; non- positions (total and by division); airline revenue per full-time contract employee positions (total employee; operating net and by division); actual overtime-to- revenues per full-time employee; budgeted revenue per full-time employee; total airport cost per full-time employee Training performance Number of on-site employee Training costs per full-time HR records measures training classes, average class employee; compliance training evaluation rating, compliance by employee training Personnel actions Grievances; turnover; personnel Turnover ratios; costs of Finance and/or HR actions (disciplinary, drug and safety turnover per new employee; records test results, etc.) trends of significant personnel actions