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Airport Information 47 transmit equipment data to a central monitoring point. The current status of elevators, esca- lators, and other mechanical systems that must remain operational are examples of this new data transfer. Those responsible for maintaining an airport's mobile equipment can use metrics to collec- tively measure the status of the fleet and the efficiency of the division's staff. Many of the met- rics have been developed by agencies that operate fleets of vehicles numbering in the thousands. Sophisticated organizations have developed metrics that combine historical cost of a vehicle, its age, and total miles (or hours), and, from this, they can develop formulas for vehicle replace- ment. More standard metrics include in-commission rates, operating cost per mile, and stan- dard times allocated for specific tasks, such as brake repair or engine overhaul. Inventory values above a prescribed level are a red flag to management that too much might be invested in unnecessary inventory. Supply specialists need to analyze appropriate stock levels to ensure that critical parts are always on hand or readily available through local vendors. Key concepts to capture include minimum stock levels, reorder points, historical consumption, and the cost to store items. All these metrics require accurate and timely access to the Finance and Administration business- critical information presented in Tables 4-10 through 4-13. Engineering Overview The Engineering functional area includes the following divisions: Design/Construction, Envi- ronmental, and Planning. These divisions are responsible for an airport's ongoing construction program, which normally represents the largest set of (capital) expenditures occurring on an air- port. These divisions also provide technical support for the other line divisions of the airport. It is not unusual for a medium hub airport to be involved in a capital program with a value that will exceed a half billion dollars over the life of the program. Such programs are often made up of scores of projects that each cost millions. Monitoring and control of the projects benefit from a certain degree of information technology. Probably the largest user of computerized data, the Design and Construction division is adopt- ing CAD systems to maintain and control plans, files, and specifications. For years, airports have investigated the feasibility of digitizing all physical characteristics, which might include topographical features, physical structures, utilities--types and locations, building footprints, legal descriptions, and manufacturers' specifications including recommended maintenance pro- cedures for mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems, and making these databases available for integration with all functional units of an airport. To date, few if any airports have succeeded, although other entities such as the U.S. Armed Forces have been partially successful in this effort. In a fully integrated airport, Real Estate could have all metes and bounds descriptions along with lease terms included in a layer of the graphics database; Maintenance could easily access mechan- ical systems with part numbers and recommended maintenance procedures for repair purposes; and Operations could dispatch fire trucks under zero visibility conditions to points along a run- way depending entirely on digitized depictions of the airfield integrated with satellite ground positioning systems for vehicles and aircraft locations. Some vendors have developed software to control and track Capital Improvement Programs, particularly expenditures. Some systems go so far as to monitor contractor performance covered by the prevailing wage requirements. Unfortunately, few of these systems have been fully
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48 Integrating Airport Information Systems Table 4-10. Business-critical information for facility maintenance. Business-critical Key Data information data elements Metrics source Work reported on shift logs Conditional variations from normal NA Building maintenance, that represents information of deemed significant equipment sensors importance to senior management (e.g., major water leak) Budget Divisional expenditures by object Percentage above or below Budget documents, code budget, cost to maintain per general ledger passenger per square foot of leasable space, cost per square foot Budget to actual (personnel) Ratio of budget-to-actual Budget documents, expenditures (e.g., after 6 general ledger months, 44% of approved budget expended) Budget to actual (parts and Ratio of budget-to-actual Budget documents, material) expenditures general ledger Budget to actual (contract services) Ratio of budget to actual Budget documents, expenditures general ledger Budget to actual (capital, etc.) Ratio of budget to actual Budget documents, expenditures general ledger Accident history Number of accidents, severity of The number of accidents as a HR databases; facility injury, cost per incident; OSHA ratio of the number of employees maintenance internal violations engaged in a craft; workers' records; OSHA compensation claims compared to national standards; OSHA violations compared to other airports Personnel statistics Number of positions filled, Percentage of positions filled HR budgeted, approved Training requirements and Hours of training required by Percentage complete Training specialist records of completion employee per period per skill level within division, HR Preventive maintenance Number of items requiring Date inspection due compared Databases maintained program inspection, frequency of inspection, to actual date, percentage by maintenance name of agency qualified to perform complete, etc. inspections (e.g., perform inspections of such equipment as fire extinguishers, elevators, escalators, boilers, chillers, transformers, etc.) Utility usage Period of use; unit of measurement Electricity, water, gas used per Meter readings, (gallons, kilowatt hours, cubic feet, square foot, power factor, etc. telemetry, etc. etc.) Pending work orders Total work orders, estimated time Ratio of work requests to Maintenance control, to complete, work requests, material pending work orders; ratio of HR, industrial on order work orders completed in current standards and period compared to similar manufacturers' period one year prior; ratio of recommendations work order by craft compared to delineating times number of employees in required to complete particular section specific tasks Status of critical equipment Equipment designation, location, Percentage on line Incident reports from criticality classification, status maintenance staff (on/off), etc.
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Airport Information 49 Table 4-11. Business-critical information for maintenance control. Business-critical Key Data information data elements Metrics source Established priority policy NA Priorities usually are (e.g., airfield safety, terminal established by senior public areas) management and provide direction for the scheduling of resources Number of systems Bag claim conveyors, matrix NA maintained readers, parking ticket spitters, parking toll booths, etc. Total work orders in Work order, number, description of Ratio of pending work orders to Manually and/or via progress, status, time to task, date initiated, estimated time to those completed during a period automated work-order completion, etc. complete, work orders completed of time, etc. system per staff Incidents from shift logs NA Entered by supervisor (incidents that occurred over on duty; may be in an 8-hour period gathered retrievable flat file from the perspectives of format or in written log different divisions) Safety related work orders Work order number, description, NA anticipated completion date Airfield, terminal, roadway Runway status, roadway status, NA Originates initially status that might impact status of various parts of terminal from division level but airport operation flows to maintenance control for scheduling and implementation Upcoming maintenance Preventive maintenance schedule Manually or via events software Service delivery Service deadlines NA Manually or via software Expiring agreements; Service level agreements Expiration date of contract Manually or via service over/under expected compared to current date software level integrated into the Financial Management Information Systems of airports. An optimum pack- age would integrate accounts payable, description of the CIP originally envisioned in a Master Plan, budgetary provisions of the bond issuance Official Statement (if applicable), Plan of Finance, asset journal, and compliance records by contractor and then merge engineer's estimates with actual bids received, sources and uses of funds as adjusted, and change orders as they are proposed. Software exists for project management. From the earliest renditions of Program Evaluation and Review Technique to today's most sophisticated, proprietary program management soft- ware products, airports continue to adapt these improved management tools to control their construction programs. Engineering and construction projects at airports also have to consider the environmental impact of design and implementation. At some airports, a separate Environmental division plans, implements, and maintains systems designed to minimize the impact of the airport on its surrounding environs. Several tools are available to meet these goals. Airports have successfully integrated parts of FAA's radar tracking systems with ground sensors that can measure aircraft- generated sound levels, temperature, ambient noise levels, and wind conditions. Output of these systems often includes noise contour maps, single-event occurrence reports, perceived noise level calculations, and correlation of noise complaints from an individual with a specific occur- rence. Other systems designed to monitor air and groundwater quality, while not as sophisti- cated or as automated as those related to noise, are commonly used at airports.