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58 Integrating Airport Information Systems the legacy systems to the new systems. Because the different business and data requirements for each location were not considered, business rules for the data were not properly applied before implementation. After the system had been deployed to only one county, these irregularities were discovered. For the State of Colorado, the experience was costly and is an indication that any organization can experience integration problems surrounding disparate legacy systems similar to those found in many airports today. The remainder of this chapter discusses typical airport systems and the problems inherent in trying to integrate data from them, in the following sections: · Research Conclusions, · Disparate Data Sources, · Systems Examination, and · Information System Samples. Research Conclusions During the research for this Handbook, the project team examined lessons learned in various industries, including the aviation industry. The suggestions that follow are drawn from some of the more important lessons learned. Data Airports should own the data in a format usable for the airport and should identify the cur- rent systems that use the data as well as the format, structure, and architecture of each. Data Processes Data processes have multiple levels of maturity, therefore understanding and identifying each level helps ensure successful data rule implementation. Understanding processes that are paral- lel with each other but housed in different systems also helps identify the rules and set the prior- ities of the processes and systems. Standards Worldwide standards organizations provide central repositories where terminologies and def- initions are maintained and assist in data interchange format standards, which are technology driven. Using data standards, such as metadata registries, enables airports to set standards for communicating between systems and government agencies. Some of these standards-setting organizations have teamed with the FAA to facilitate aviation standards. When an airport is plan- ning the integration of many systems, these standards should be taken into account. Phased Approach As discussed in Chapters 2 and 3 of this Handbook, when an airport is considering many systems in its integration plan, using a phased approach, rather than trying to integrate all systems at an airport, can increase success rates. In addition, an airport should look at the sys- tems identified in the vision and evaluate each system within each phase. It might not be neces- sary to integrate every system to achieve the vision. Everything from all systems might not be the best approach for an older airport with many disparate legacy systems.