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Current State of the Industry 9 Before purchasing the software, airports should check with their legal department to deter- mine if there are contractual constraints, which might affect the usefulness of the software and, if so, how these contract issues can be addressed. Passenger Fees Some airports use airport-driven data sources, such as common-use kiosks, check-in systems, ticket readers at the gate, and passenger manifests, to capture passenger counts needed to bill for passenger fees. These sources can automatically capture the passenger counts for arriving and departing flights. Automatic capture eliminates the need for airline self-reporting, and thus alle- viates the typical delay for payment to the airport. Further, airports are testing video analytic technology to report and analyze passenger infor- mation, including counting passengers as they enplane and deplane the aircraft. This technology allows airports to audit payments based on airline self-reporting or to automatically and accu- rately bill airlines for each passenger fee--fees for enplaning and deplaning, common-use fees, and international passenger fees. If airport-airline agreements do not preclude it, the ability to generate immediate billing of passenger fees would allow airports to reduce the current 60- to 90-day grace period airlines usu- ally have for payment of such fees. In the current financial state of the industry, this shortening of the payment grace period might reduce the potential for significant bad or pre-petition bank- ruptcy debt resulting from several months of unpaid fees and charges. Should the airline seek bankruptcy protection, this may strengthen the position of the airport by increasing the regular- ity of the payments, suggesting the payments were made in the ordinary course of business, and increasing the likelihood that these payments will be retained. Space Planning and Physical Facilities Information needed for effective planning and space use decisions is rarely integrated. Infor- mation about land ownership, Master Plans, current construction, blueprints, and as-built con- struction might not be in a format that is readily available or easily integrated into financial and operational activities. Airports are proprietors and calculate returns on airport land investments. Calculations rely on data such as land cost, other investment expenditures, and effects on new development that are not in the Master Plan. Senior managers may not have ready access to accurate information about the physical real- ity of their airports--facilities, raw land, land under development, buildings, and infrastructure, such as underground cables or plumbing. Without this information, an airport's finance and engineering reporting might not provide accurate and meaningful data for senior management in a timely manner. Concessions Airports have typically performed cost-benefit analyses and determined that integrating conces- sion information is an arduous process and the results may not be worth the cost. Concession report- ing is often done manually. Cashier systems differ widely from concessionaire to concessionaire, with as many as 30 or more different types at some large airports. Further, these concessions are often part of a franchise or store network, each with their own reporting systems and requirements. As the retail industry settles on common standards, information integration may become easier. Airports need to examine these concession systems, watch for standardization in the retail industry, and explore integration of these systems. For example, Singapore Changi (SIN) airport