Click for next page ( 43


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 42
44 Tools to Aid State DOTs in Responding to Workforce Challenges Table 5.1. (Continued). Scenarios Workforce Need Category (s) Associated Resource Needs A mechanic is seriously injured when a piece Organizational development, Analysis to identify organizational culture of machinery falls on him while he repairs it. leadership development, training, issues. The OSHA investigator says it wasn't properly performance, competencies Processes and peer DOT assistance in secured and fines the DOT. The shop workload motivating effective safety behavior. is heavy. Interviews with the shop supervisor and mechanics reveal that they are routinely Coaching, example setting, rewards for asked to "do whatever it takes" to get the work appropriate behavior. done even if it means using substandard Training on proper methods. equipment and taking shortcuts. It turns out Disciplinary methods for non-compliance. that this means of doing business isn't confined to the one shop. How can a safety Assessment of appropriate staffing levels culture be instituted? and competencies. The state has purchased asset management Training, competencies Identify competencies required to operate software that includes modules for inventory software. of capital purchases. Many people will need to Identify existing staff competencies. be trained to use the software. Some of the positions that would be using it are lower paid, Develop training content and methods higher turnover so it's important to have consistent with needs in cooperation with reference materials and just-in-time training. vendor for new material if necessary. The software vendor will provide the training, Identify appropriate training delivery but it's generic and fairly expensive. How methods. should the training be accomplished? 5.4 Workforce Trends This section identifies current workforce trends and their implications for emerging work- force needs. Workforce need categories from the framework are identified, and types of work- force resources that would likely be helpful to meet the needs are listed (Table 5.2). 5.5 Future Trends While many of the trends and needs currently facing state DOTs will continue for the next 510 years, there will also be new emerging trends that will impact workforce needs. This section discusses the implications of these emerging trends, organized by the need categories of the framework. Compensation and Benefits. Historically, prospective employees could assume baseline benefits such as health insurance and retirement. Public sector organizations could offer an attractive benefits package to offset lower wages when compared to the private sector. If state DOTs are to continue attracting and retaining a quality workforce, they must find ways to offer a combination of wages, benefits, and other non-salary compensation that appeals to appropriate job candidates. Competencies. Currently competencies are used primarily to identify and develop training needs and programs, as well as to identify the requirements for various occupations. If compe- tencies are to ultimately achieve wider use they must become both more standardized and more easily adjusted when specific work requirements emerge. Downsizing/Reductions in Force. As the capabilities of information technology expand and the economy shrinks, organizations will need to do more with fewer people, and those people will need a variety of skills and characteristics to remain effective in the face of change.

OCR for page 42
Needs Framework 45 Table 5.2. Implications of current workforce trends for workforce needs and resources. State DOT Trends Implications for Workforce Associated Resource Needs Needs (Need Category) More work to be done Methods to prioritize programs and Strategic planning and management process which identifies than resources to the work associated with the the most important programs, the desired outcomes and the accomplish programs (Performance financial and human resources required to achieve goals. Management) Principles of efficient and effective organizational design. Need for organization structures Delegations of authority manual that emphasizes decision that facilitate efficient and effective making at the lowest possible level. decision making (Organizational Development) A performance management system and accompanying incentives to reinforce the value of effective, efficient A culture of performance performance. (Performance Management) The rapidly changing Revised business processes An automated tool which maps business processes easily. nature and content of (Organizational Development) Training in the new business processes and to understand work Assistance to help adjust to the nature of and reason for change. changed business processes Marketing and facilitation resources to get buy-in from (Organizational Development) affected parties. Revised competencies to reflect changing work (Competencies) Automated resource for tracking competency requirements and the changes made to those competencies. Build transferable competencies (e.g., teamwork, communications) Loss of leadership and Well qualified replacements Workforce planning resource which anticipates retirements. technical "brain trust" (Leadership Development, Succession planning process to identify leadership needs. through retirements Succession Planning) Leadership development training which assures an available source of qualified candidates from which to choose. Supervisor, manager, executive recruitment process that assures an efficient and effective recruitment and selection process. A new technology Assure the workforce acquires the Automated tool for tracking competency requirements and the substantially changes skills to use the new technology changes made to those competencies. the traditional methods appropriately (Competencies, Business process analysis tool which identifies which human of accomplishing work Training and Development) resources programs must be changed, e.g., competencies, recruitment, training. Training needs analysis methodology and automated system for conducting analysis. Learning Management System to track, support revision of training products and track who needs and has received the retraining. Outsourcing resources when talent can't be hired. A new program Determine how to best acquire the Workforce planning resources to define specific needs, mandated by the workforce (Competencies, analyze potential sources and methods, e.g., direct hires, legislature requires Outsourcing) contract out, or a combination. hiring a new Competency analysis to identify requirements and existence Develop and execute recruitment occupational category of needed competencies in current workforce. strategy and plan (Recruitment) Method for developing and executing recruitment strategy and plan. (continued on next page)

OCR for page 42
46 Tools to Aid State DOTs in Responding to Workforce Challenges Table 5.2. (Continued). State DOT Trends Implications for Workforce Associated Resource Needs Needs (Need Category) Increasing employee Retain well qualified employees Methodologies and guidelines to estimate cost of turnover. turnover through (Retention) Exit interview program to ascertain why employees leave and retirement and guides to fix problem areas. voluntary resignations Financial and non-financial incentives to retain needed competencies. Supervisor, manager, executive training to assure that the organization has a culture which attracts and retains the best talent. Within 5 years, 40% of Retain needed organizational Competency analysis to determine what capabilities should be the workforce is knowledge (Knowledge retained for the organization. eligible to retire Management) Workforce planning tool to provide "what-if" scenarios of Human capital planning (Strategic how and when those eligible might leave. Planning) Strategy and plan for retaining the needed knowledge. Recruitment and employee development programs to assure needed knowledge retention. Written and oral histories (in accessible form) of the experts whose knowledge will be lost through retirement. Human Resources flexibilities, e.g., reemployed annuitant authority to rehire those who retire for 13 years. Downsizing and What competencies must be Analysis to determine what are essential government/DOT outsourcing of DOT retained or strengthened functions. function (Competencies) Organizational development resources. Human capital planning (Strategic Competency analysis to determine essential capabilities Planning) to retain internally. . Conduct due diligence on options for contracting out. Multisector workforce plan to identify what will remain within DOT and what will be contracted out and to whom. Contract administration resources. Establish a culture of Hold leadership accountable Performance management program which defines culture of performance to (Leadership Development, performance responsibilities of leaders. enhance productivity Performance Management) Training program for leadership on these competencies and and customer service Holding employees accountable requirements. (Performance Management) Performance incentives which reinforce desired behaviors and achievements. Improved efficiency Human resources strategy and Business process review, analysis, and revision. and accountability for business planning (Strategic Methods for identifying system requirements. human resources Planning) services/processing Methods for identifying related policies, procedures, systems, Data-based decision-making e.g., payroll. (HRIS, Strategic Planning) Workforce planning to identify needed resources to staff Resources to support human HRIS project. resources operations staff (HRIS) Budget analysis to determine financial resources required. Training programs to teach human resources and other staff and managers how to use new system and its resources. Metrics to judge success of various stages of project.

OCR for page 42
Needs Framework 47 Employee Conflict. The degree of employee conflict in the workplace will increase and decrease based on such issues as the presence or absence of well qualified supervisors, managers and executives, the degree of stress within the working and personal lives of employees and their family members and the more general cultural norms of the United States. The most successful organizations will continue to understand that making employee assistance programs available to those who are experiencing work related or personal stress in their lives is a good investment, which enhances the quality of work life for all employees and contributes significantly to enhanced organizational productivity. Human Resources Information Systems (HRIS). We are just at the beginning of the appli- cation of the power of information technology to human resources policies, programs, procedures, and practices. As HRIS is refined and becomes more responsive to organization needs, much of the operational and compliance work currently done by Human Resources Departments will be automated in whole or in substantial part by information systems. This means that HR employees must learn to harness the power of information technology systems and identify the decisions and activities that truly require human intellect and ingenuity. This transformation will not result in the need for fewer human or fiscal resources for Human Resources Departments. Rather, it does mean that human resources competencies and activities will be substantially different than they are today. As social networking technologies become more developed and pervasive, the power of this technology will also need to be captured and developed for use within organi- zations. This includes the ability of human resources staff to use data for strategic workforce planning. Balancing the need for data security and ease of access to data will continue to present challenges for organizations. Human Resources Function. The basic human resources functions of recruitment, hiring, placement, promotion, rewards and benefits will continue to be the foundation functions of any top quality human resources program and the key to an organization's ability to attract and retain a well qualified workforce. In addition, we can expect to see substantial change in the next decades in issues such as the impact of automation on both how work is done and where it is done, on the types of employee-employer relationships that exist, and on quality of work life issues. For example, most organizations still believe that most employees must be in a designated physical workplace that is within the physical sight of the supervisor. Virtual organizations will become well accepted in the next 1530 years, as will the notion of networked organizations. "Networked organizations" refers to individuals from different parts of a single organization, or individuals from a number of different organizations, working together virtually or physically, to accomplish assignments of importance to the organization. Human Resources Planning. Linking human resources policies, programs, and procedures to the agency's strategic plan and objectives will become commonplace. Every organization will have the planning capacity to assure that its human resources are aligned appropriately with current program priorities and that it has the planning capacity to anticipate in three, five or ten year cycles what the human resources needs of the organization will be. This planning capacity will be supported by appropriate technology which will enhance the forecasting capabilities of agencies and their human resources programs areas. Knowledge Management. Public organization will make slow but steady progress in under- standing how to identify their knowledge management needs, and how to organize knowledge for the maximum benefit of the organization, employees, customers, and stakeholders. Most public organizations are just beginning to understand how important managing knowledge is to assuring a quality workforce and quality work products. In the 21st century, public organizations will come to understand that knowledge management is an essential competitive advantage as they compete for the best talent for their organizations.

OCR for page 42
48 Tools to Aid State DOTs in Responding to Workforce Challenges Leadership Development. Lessons learned over the last 3040 years, particularly about the failure to develop enough talented leaders, dictates that leadership development programs and activities will be paramount during the next 510 years. However, as information technology reduces the need for hierarchical organizational structures, leadership development and train- ing should occur at every organizational level. A key competency for successful leadership devel- opment and training will be facilitation of the associated change of culture from a traditional hierarchical organization to that of a more networked structure. In addition, the complexity of solutions will demand that leaders are able to assemble and utilize teams of individuals within and outside their organizations. Finally, the cost of leadership development (as well as other organizational fiscal demands) in a season of scarcity will demand rethinking of how leader- ship development occurs. For example, Gallup Organization and ASTD research suggests that proactive leadership development training to enhance individuals' strengths provides a greater long term return on investment than development which seeks to cure an individual's leader- ship weaknesses. Organizational Change. At the beginning of the 21st century, most public and private organizations still retain the hierarchical, and relatively rigid, organization structures, policies and processes which have existed since the 19th century. As technology tools make horizontal and vertical collaboration easier, and make networked teams and similar constructs possible and essential, organizational change will take on a whole new meaning. Contributing to this increased pace of change will be the demand from citizens and legislatures that organizations be more effective and efficient as increased demands for service compete with a continuing scarcity of resources to meet those demands. Organizational Development. Because of increasing demands in relation to scarcity of availability of resources to meet those demands, an organization's processes and methods for developing its internal capacities to help assure its current and future success in accomplishing its strategic goals and objectives will also become a necessity. This need will be exacerbated by such issues as the following: Increased use of information technology systems and resources, The presence of three to four generations of workers in the workforce, Pressures forcing social networking within and outside the organization, and The scarcity of sufficient numbers of individuals in the labor pool to meet workforce needs. Organizational Performance. The talk of measuring organizational performance will be replaced by the reality of measuring organizational performance. The development of strategic plans and objectives, and the metrics to assess performance against those plans and objectives, will provide the framework for true assessment of organization performance. This will require the linking of substantive program objectives and plans with the human, fiscal and materiel resources required to support accomplishing the established goals. To achieve this outcome, employee performance and organizational performance must be related. Ultimately, organization performance will be measured on ultimate outcomes. For example, the DOT will be judged successful if it provides an inter-related transportation system effectively and efficiently, not just did it build this road, or that bridge. Outsourcing and Contract Management. Multi-sector workforce planning that merges planning for direct hires with acquisition of talent from all other sources will be a necessity. Organizations that choose to acquire needed goods and services from other providers will need to assure that they have the talent within their organizations to exercise the proper due diligence and oversight of the contracts and other arrangements of acquiring goods and services from external sources.

OCR for page 42
Needs Framework 49 Performance Management. Managing organization and individual performance will be seen as two halves of the whole rather than two separate and distinct programs and processes. This merger necessitates aligning the strategic plan goals and outcomes with organization and individual performance requirements. This will also necessitate the rethinking of the following: How performance requirements are articulated and measured. The financial and non-financial incentives that encourage the performance culture that an organization wants and needs to accomplish its strategic goals and objectives. It will also require assuring that both supervisors and employees are trained to understand how all of these pieces work together. Recruitment. Recruitment policies, programs, and procedures will continue to be stream- lined and targeted to interests of candidates with the desired skills. Recruitment is likely to be broadened to focus on sources of skill sets rather than just traditional sources of candidates. Applications for positions will be almost wholly Internet-based, which means state DOTs will need to substantially enhance both their web-based recruitment tools as well as the capabilities of their staffs to use those resources. Retention. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) predicts that by 2030 the labor pool will increase at a rate of approximately one-third of 1% a year. This compares to an early 21st century labor pool growth rate of approximately 1.2% per year. Assuming a reasonable economic growth rate, it is clear that the competition for well-qualified candidates will be at a premium. To retain the best employees, organizations will need to provide interesting work that allows employees to make both substantial contributions and to grow and develop professionally. A critical success factor will be well trained and experienced executives, managers and supervisors--the organization's leadership cadre--who can direct these activities and assure that well qualified employees are retained. In addition to creating a creative and performance based work environment, leaders will need resources to assist. These resources include financial and non-financial recruitment and retention incentives, employee development opportunities, well defined career ladders and career paths and similar resources. In addition, organizations will need to conduct exit inter- views of those who leave, provide a wide variety of work-life programs such as alternative work schedules, and use similar analytical tools and programs to assure that the work place and the work are of a level that allows the organization to retain the talent it has competed for. Retirement. The baby boomers are already redefining retirement, and this trend will con- tinue. For the first time in its history as a nation, the United States will have workforces which encompass as many as four generations of employees. This will require rethinking retirement benefits and work arrangements. For example, most public and private organizations still require employees to be full time or part time. They do not have the concept of a "step down" employment arrangement where individuals can work anywhere from 40 hours per week to 30 hours per week to 20 hours per week in a structured, predictable way. This type of change will require rethinking the nature and structure of work and positions. However, this type of change could also contribute significantly to such issues as knowledge management, if organizations put a premium on capturing and sharing the knowledge of the senior workforce with its more junior members. Strategic Planning. Strategic plans will become an organizational necessity because demands on state DOTs will continue to increase at an exponential rate while available fiscal and human resources will increase at a substantially slower rate. The strategic plan will be the initial process and instrument through which state DOTs identify program priorities to receive scarce fiscal and human resources. Strategic planning will be strengthened with a stronger focus on strategic management--implementing the plans with actions that support the plan.

OCR for page 42
50 Tools to Aid State DOTs in Responding to Workforce Challenges Succession Planning. As discussed above, the scarcity of human and fiscal resources in an environment of increasing complexity necessitates identifying individuals to replace those who will leave the organization. Succession planning will be needed for positions at all levels of mission critical occupations. Training and Development. State DOTs will need to substantially increase their under- standing of which training delivery mechanisms provide the greatest level of learning for the least cost. The effectiveness of computer based training and other less formal means will need to increase substantially and will need to be more tailored to the content needs and different learning styles of students. In addition, there will be (and should be) greater pressure to share training resources and development costs between and among state DOTs and other public employers. Workforce Planning and Development. Planning for workforce needs and assuring that the workforce has the opportunity to continually develop its skills and competencies will be two factors that are critical to success over the next quarter century. Competition for well qualified staff will continue to be a challenge for state DOTs. Those organizations that invest in analyzing what type of workforce is needed will be able to make better use of scarce dollars and will be able to increase the likelihood that those individuals who are hired are the right people to maximize production. The rate of new knowledge creation is predicted to continue to increase exponentially. This requires that organizations create a workforce development strategy and plan for assuring that the workforce acquires the new knowledge necessary to achieve its strategic goals and outcome, and can do so with greater efficiency and effectiveness. Other. Driven by rapidly changing technology, the explosion in knowledge, the scarcity of human and fiscal resources in relation to continuing growth in demand for goods and services, quantitative analytical tools, and the development and use of data-driven decision making will become the norm. Analysis assessing both the qualitative and quantitative return on investment (ROI) for all workforce decisions will become paramount.