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35 provide information on measuring dowel misalignment, quan- findings and the recommended guidelines. Such studies may tifying the effects of misaligned dowels on pavement perform- include the following: ance, determining critical levels of dowel misalignment, and the means for preventing dowel misalignment and mitigating 1. Evaluation of in-service pavement sections with high mis- or remedying the effects of misaligned dowels. alignment levels after they have been exposed to traffic to The finite element analysis confirmed the findings of determine the effect of these misalignments on the long- the laboratory testing that PCC-dowel friction and/or bond term pavement performance and further evaluate the equiv- strength due to lack of proper bond breaker or dowel corrosion alent dowel diameter concept. may cause more restrain to joint opening and closing than 2. Laboratory investigations of the influence of concrete dowel rotational misalignment of typical levels. mixtures, curing procedures, and other construction factors on misalignment. 3. Investigation of approaches and concepts for improving 4.2 Suggested Research dowel placement. Although the findings of this project were based on a sig- 4. Investigation of the mechanisms associated with joint nificant amount of field and laboratory measurement and finite lockup and the premature cracking and spalling in the element analysis, additional studies would help improve these proximity of transverse joints.