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36 References ABAQUS/CAE User's Manual, version 6.7. Dassault Systemes, Providence, Khazanovich, L., M. Darter, and R. Bartlett. Common Characteristics RI, 2007. of Good and Poorly Performing PCC Pavements, Report No. FHWA- ACPA. Understanding Sawed Joints and Dowel Bar Alignment. Concrete RD-97-131. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, Pavement Progress, Vol. 40, No. 4. American Concrete Pavement 1998. Association, Skokie, IL, September 2004. Khazanovich, L., M. Darter, and T. Yu. Mechanistic-Empirical Model AASHTO. Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide: A Manual of to Predict Transverse Joint Faulting. In Transportation Research Practice. Interim Edition. American Association of State Highway Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board No. 1896. and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC, July 2008. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Wash- Burnham, T. A Field Study of PCC Joint Misalignment near Fergus ington, DC, 2004, pp. 3445. Falls, Minnesota, Report No. MN/RC-1999-29. Minnesota DOT, Khazanovich, L., H.T. Yu, S. Rao, K. Galasova, E. Shats, and R. Jones. Maplewood, MN, 1999. ISLAB2000--Finite Element Analysis Program for Rigid and Com- Buch, N., L. Khazanovich, and A. Gotlif. Evaluation of Alignment posite Pavements, User's Guide. ERES Consultants, Champaign, IL, Tolerances for Dowel Bars and their Effects on Joint Performance. 2000. Pavement Research Center of Excellence, 2001. Khazanovich, L., N. Buch, and A. Gotlif. "Mechanistic Evaluation of Crovetti, J.A. Evaluation of Jointed Concrete Pavement Systems Incorpo- Vertical Misalignment of Dowel Bars and their Effect on Joint rating Open-Graded Permeable Bases. Ph.D. dissertation, University Performance," Proceedings, 7th International Conference on Con- of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1994. crete Pavement. Lake Buena Vista, FL, 2001, pp. 525538. Davids, B. EVERFE Theory Manual. http://www.civil.umaine.edu/EverFE, Khazanovich, L., H.T. Yu, and R. Stubstad. Nondestructive Dowel Bar 2003. Detection in Existing Rigid Concrete Pavement Slabs. California Fowler, G., and W. Gulden. Investigation of Location of Dowel Bars Placed Department of Transportation, Sacramento, 2003. by Mechanical Implantation, Georgia Department of Transportation, Khazanovich, L., I. Yut, D. Tompkins, and A. Schultz. The Second Gen- Report No. FHWA/RD-82/153. Federal Highway Administration, eration of Minnesota Accelerated Loading Facility--Minne-ALF-2. Washington, DC, 1983. Proceedings, 8th International Conference on Concrete Pavements. FHWA. Technical Advisory 5040.30, Concrete Pavement Joints. Federal Colorado Springs, CO, 2005. Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 1990. Lechner, B. Joint Design and Joint Performance of Plain Concrete FHWA. Use of Magnetic Tomography to Evaluate Dowel Bar Placement. TechBrief. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 2005. Pavements (JPCP)--Investigations and Experiences in Germany. FHWA. Best Practices for Dowel Placement Tolerances. TechBrief. Proceedings, 8th International Conference on Concrete Pavements. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 2007. Colorado Springs, CO, 2005. Guo, H., J.A. Sherwood, and M.B. Snyder. Component Dowel-Bar Model Leong, P. Analysis of Effect of Dowel Bar Misalignment on the Performance for Load-Transfer Systems in PCC Pavements. Journal of Transporta- of Concrete Pavement Joints. Thesis for the University of Waterloo, tion Engineering, Vol. 121, 1996, pp. 289298. Ontario, Canada, 2006. Hoerner, T.E., M.I. Darter, L. Khazanovich, L. Titus-Glover, and K.L. McGhee, K.H. NCHRP Synthesis of Highway Practice 211: Design, Smith. Improved Prediction Models for PCC Pavement Performance- Construction, and Maintenance of PCC Pavement Joints. TRB, Related Specifications, Volume I: Final Report, Report No. FHWA- National Research Council, Washington, DC, 1995. RD-00-130. Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA, 2000. Midwest Concrete Consortium (MCC) State Representative Reports. Hossain, S., and M.K. Elfino. Field Demonstration of Magnetic Tomog- Madison, WI, April 2004. raphy Technology for Determination of Dowel Bar Position in Concrete Miller, J. S., and W. Y. Bellinger. Distress Identification Manual for the Pavement, VTRC 06-R40. Virginia Transportation Research Council, Long-Term Pavement Performance Program (Fourth Revised Edition), June 2006. Report No. FHWA-RD-03-031. Federal Highway Administration, Khazanovich, L., and A. Gotlif. Evaluation of Joint and Crack Load Washington, DC, 2003. Transfer, Report No. FHWA-RD-02-088. Federal Highway Admin- Ministry of Transportation of Ontario. Construction Specification for istration, Washington, DC, 2002. Concrete Pavement and Concrete Base, O.P.S.S. 350, 2007.
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37 NCHRP. Synthesis Report of Highway Practice 56: Joint-Related Distress in Behavior in Rigid Pavements. In Transportation Research Record: PCC Pavement: Cause, Prevention, and Rehabilitation. TRB, National Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1947, Transporta- Research Council, Washington, DC, 1979. tion Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, DC, Odden, T.R., M.B. Snyder, and A.E. Schultz. Performance Testing of 2006, pp. 1527. Experimental Dowel Bar Retrofit Designs: Part 1 Initial Testing, Final Tayabji, S.D. Dowel Placement Tolerances for Concrete Pavements. In Report. Minnesota Department of Transportation, Minneapolis, Transportation Research Record 1062, TRB, National Research 2003. Council, Washington, DC, 1986, pp. 4754. Owusu-Antwi, E.B., L. Titus-Glover, L. Khazanovich, and J.R. Roesler. Tayabji, S.D., and P.A. Okamoto. Field Evaluation of Dowel Placement Development and Calibration of Mechanistic-Empirical Distress in Concrete Pavements. In Transportation Research Record 110, TRB, Models for Cost Allocation, Final Report. Federal Highway Admin- National Research Council, Washington, DC, 1987, pp. 101109. istration, Washington, DC, 1997. Yu, H.T. Dowel Bar Alignments of Typical In-Service Pavements, R&D PCA. Concrete Paving 100 Years of Progress Through Innovation. Serial No. 2894. Portland Cement Association, Skokie, IL, 2005. Concrete in Highway Transportation, No. 10, Portland Cement Yu, H.T., K.D. Smith, M.I. Darter, J. Jiang, and L. Khazanovich. Per- Association, Skokie, IL, 1991. formance of Concrete Pavements, Volume III: Improving Concrete Prabhu, M., N. Buch, A.H. Varma, and D. Thandaveswara. Experimental Pavement Performance, Report No. FHWA-RD-95-111. Federal Investigation of the Effects of Dowel Misalignment on Joint Opening Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 1998.