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Appendix B National Science Foundation Funding for Solar Physics Currently solar physics research is supported by three divisions in two separate directorates within the National Science Foundation (NSF). Originally the Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences Di- rectorate provided support for solar physics within a single directorate. In 1986 the Division of Astronomical Sciences was moved to the Mathematical and Physical Sciences Directorate, and at the same time NSF formed a new Geosciences Directorate consisting of the Atmospheric Sciences, Earth Sci- ences, and Ocean Sciences Divisions, plus the Division of Polar Programs. The Geosciences Directorate now provides a major source of funding for solar physics. GEOSCIENCES DIRECTORATE Grant support to individual scientists for solar physics research is pro- vided by the Atmospheric Sciences Division, which also supports studies of solar activity as it relates to an understanding of the solar influences on the Earth's upper atmosphere and near-space environment. In addition, support is provided for the High Altitude Observatory (MAO) of the Na- tional Center for Atmospheric Research. The HAO is one of the largest solar research institutions in the United States, with a permanent staff of approximately 15 PhD scientists and the addition of about a dozen visiting scientists each year with substantial funding from other agencies. In addi- tion, a small number of grants for solar physics research conducted in the 57

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58 polar regions is provided by the Division of Polar Programs. Each divi- sion also has a Facilities Section with separate responsibility for supporting necessary facilities, maintenance, and instrumentation. MATHEMATICAL AND PIIYSICAL SCIENCES DIRECTORATE The Astronomical Sciences Division provides grants to individual sci- entists for research in solar physics and the solar-stellar connection. In addition, solar physics support is provided by an NSF contract to the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) for the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO), which manages and provides funding support for the National Solar Observatory (NSO), Tucson, Arizona, also one of the largest solar research institutions in the United States, with 15 PhD scientists and 10 affiliated PhD scientists funded by non-NSF sources. NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION BUDGET FOR SOLAR PITYSICS Table B.1, a summary of the NSF budget for solar physics for FY 1985 through FY 1988, shows the breakdown of support for grants and for centers and initiatives. Able B.1 shows that solar physics funding for both the HAO and the NSO has declined in teas of constant dollars (1982 = 100) from FY 1985 through FY 1988. The subtotal for grants has increased for these same years, although the significant part of that increase has come from the Division of Atmospheric Sciences. Overall, NSF support for the field of solar physics has remained approximately level in terms of constant dollars from FY 1985 through FY 19~, except for the funding for the Global Oscillations Network Group (GONG) initiative, included as part of the NSO budget. However, when the GONG program is completed, if not before, both the HAO and NSO, which have already sustained budget cuts, will need significant funding to retain their vital roles as national centers.

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so TABLE B.1 NSF Summary Budget Breakdown of Support for Solar Physics Research (millions of dollars, corrected for inflation, FY 1982 = 100*) Fiscal Year 1985 1986 1987 1988 Grants** ATM 1.40 1.52 1.43 1.75 ASM 0.64 0.62 0.98 0.72 DPP 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.25 Subtotal grants 2.13 2.23 2.50 2.72 Centers and initiatives** HAO/NCAR 3.36 3.10 2.95 2.86 NSO/NOAO 2.67 2.50 2.60 2.61 NSO/GONG initiative 0.22 0.31 0.90 0.93 Subtotal centers and initiatives 6.25 5.9 ~6.45 6.40 Total solar physics 8.38 8.14 8.95 9.12 SOURCE: Personal communication, NSF program directors: grants ATM, Dennis Peacock; grants ASM, G. Siegfried Kutter; grants DPP, John Lynch; HAO/NCAR, Giorgio Tesi; NSO/NOAO and NSO/GONG, Seth Tuttle. *Inflation adjustments (tailored to fiscal year basis using quarters 4, 1, 2, 3) from Table 7.4, Implicit Price Deflators (1982 = 100), Survey of Current Business Vol. 68, No. 7, July 1988, p. 90, U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Washington, DC 20230. Personal communication, Shelby Herman, for final quarter, 1988, final estimate. FY 1985, 108.5; BY 1986, 110.6; BY 1987, 111.5; BY 1988, 114.5. **ATM--Atmospheric Sciences Division; ASM-Astronomical Sciences Division; DPP-Division of Polar Programs; HAO/NCAR~High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research; NSO/NOAO--National Solar Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatories; NSO/GONG-National Solar Observatory, Global Oscillations Network Group.