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Appendix C Previous Relevant National Research Council Reports 1. Space Plasma Physics: The Study of Solar-System Plasmas (Colgate Report), National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 1978. Recommended that solar-system plasma physics have high priority in order to remain an integral part of the space-science research effort of the United States. Rapidly evolving theory and new technology require that planning and implementation be regularly updated. Recommended problem-oriented missions, vigorous improvements in theory development, combined with data management, and ground-based observations. 2. Solar-S;ystem Space Physics in the 1980'~ A Research Strategy (Ken- nel Report), National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 1980. Focused primarily on a balanced program of space observations. Es- tablished scientific goals that remain the guiding force of this science: "The objectives of solar-system space research are to understand the physics of the Sun, the heliosphere, the magnetospheres, ionospheres, and upper atmospheres of the Earth, other planets, and comets. Studies of the in- teraction processes that generate solar radiation and link it to the Earth should be emphasized, because they reveal basic physical mechanisms and have useful applications." 3. Solar-Terrestnal Research for the 1980's, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 1981. Emphasized the importance of the coupling processes in the large scheme of energy transfer from the sun to the troposphere of the earth and stressed a unified set of scientific recommendations for a broadly based program of theory and ground-based and spaceborne observations. 60

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61 This decadal strategic planning document also recommended that national programs of solar-terrestrial research be coordinated among the interested federal agencies. 4. Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 1980's: Sol 1: Report of the Astronomy Survey Committee, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1982; Sol 2: Report of the Panels (Field Report), National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 1983. Described decadal research strategy for the 1980s for astronomy and astrophysics. Established foundation for major space- and earth-based observation systems. Emphasized linkage between NSFs Astronomical Sciences Division ground-based program and the NASA space-based pro- gram as a partnership. These two reports are expected to be followed by a similar decadal research strategy report in 1992. 5. The Role of Theory in Space Science, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 1983. Emphasized the conclusion that 20 years of space research had taught that the physical processes that we study in the solar and planetary system occur throughout the astrophysical universe. The same discipline-plasma physics-defines a basic language used in both fusion (a source of clean en- ergy) and space research. The report concluded that theory in solar-system plasma physics serves in many ways as a model for theory development in space research and astrophysics, particularly as it becomes a quantitative science. 6. Challenges to astronomy and Astrophysics: Wor1dng Documents of the Astronomy Survey (Field) Committee, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 1983. Presented report of the Working Group on Solar Physics (Chairman Arthur B. C. Walker) to the parent Astronomy Survey Committee (Chair- man George B. Field). The working group was "greatly alarmed by the rarity of solar-research programs at U.S. universities" (p. 96) due in part to the mission orientation of the funding agencies. Recommended com- petitive awards to young astronomers, core support for universities plus instrumentation support, sufficient funding for Sacramento Peak and Kilt Peak National Solar Obsenatories to carry out their missions, and support for solar radio astronomy. 7. An International Discussion on Research in Solar and Space Physics, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 1983. Report of a workshop sponsored jointly by the National Research Council's Space Science Board and the European Space Agency's Space Science Committee. Recommended the establishment of an international program in solar and space physics in which major projects identified by NASA and ESA would form complementary elements, improved data

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62 exchange, and strengthening of the teaching of solar and space physics in physical science curricula. 8. Nazvonal Solar-Terrestrial Research Program, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 1984. Presented an implementation strategy for the recommendations con- tained in Solar-Terresmal Research for the 1980's Do. 3 above). Rec- ommended a national solar-terrestrial research (STR) program, funded by interested federal agencies and built around the International Solar- Terrestrial Physics Program (ISTP), a key NASA program. ISTP, the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), and the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) are the integral elements, along with several data management initiatives, of the national STR program recommended. 9. A Strategy for the Explorer Program for Solar and Space Physics, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 1984. Recommended a number of limited objective, scientific problems at the forefront of the discipline that could be addressed in the future with spacecraft of the Explorer class. The Committee on Solar and Space Physics identified Explorer spacecraft as ideal for the specific problem-oriented studies essential to the field, while recognizing that major global objectives must be addressed by observatory-class missions. Recommended an average of approximately one Explorer satellite launch per year, commensurate with the scientific opportunities for solar and space physics research. 10. Solar Terrestrial Data Access, Distribution and Archiving, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 1984. 1985. Provided detailed recommendations for implementing an effective ap- proach to what is perceived as a key functional problem, and therefore a key objective, of solar-terrestrial data management-to provide flexible, evolutionary data accessibility. 11. The Physics of the Sun, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. Undertook to provide future scientific directions for the study of solar physics of the kind that the Colgate report (No. 1 above) provided for space-plasma physics. It stressed the important relationships of solar physics to astrophysics and physics. Both ground-based and space-based observations were considered. Concluded that the remarkable advances in the power of space observations, as well as advances in solar neutrino astronomy and solar seismology in the past quarter-century, have once again brought solar physics to the forefront. Recommended a special need to encourage and support the university role in solar physics. Found that because solar physics is currently observation limited, more numerous space and ground observations will be required, interpreted through improved numerical modeling. An Advocacy Panel, appointed by the Space Science Board, recommended a vigorous NASA solar research program planned

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63 in such a way as to promote strong interaction between researchers in solar physics, solar-terrestrial physics, stellar physics, and other areas of astrophysics and physics. 12. An Implementation Plan for Priorities us Solar-S;ysten2 Space Physics, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 1985. Updated the scientific objectives of Solar-System Space Physics in the 1980's: A Research Strategy (No. 2 above) and described a plan for im- plementing the objectives. The major missions recommended for NASA included previously approved programs (the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (WARS) and the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT)) and the free flyers- the International Solar Terrestrial Physics Program (ISTP), the So- lar Probe (SP), and the Solar Polar Orbiter (SPO). ISTP was identified as the highest-priority unfunded program. Moderate programs for use of Explorer-class satellites (see No. 8 above) were recommended at a one-per- year rate. Evolution toward two solar system space physics facilities on the Space Station the Advanced Solar Observatory and the Solar Terrestrial Observatory-was foreseen. 13. Solar anal Space Physics, in the compendium volumes titled Space Science in the Ih~enty-First Century: Imperatives for the Decades 1995 to 2015, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 1988. Developed an overall space-based program that addresses the most significant topics in solar and space physics, clearly defines the priority of investigations, and will be affordable by NASH Assuming that planned programs of NASA are carried out by 1995, defined the scientific objectives for the subsequent decades through 2015 and specified new programs to carry out these objectives. A key portion of this report is the definition of technological developments that will be required to support the space missions of that era. 14. Long-Term Solar-Te~restrial Observations, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 1988. This report of the panel established by the Committee on Solar- Terrestrial Research found that data acquisition, i.e., making observations year after year as required is insufficient to ensure the health and vitality of solar-terrestrial research and operational services that satisfy important national needs, such as worldwide communication and navigation systems; transmission lines for oil, gas, and electricity; geological prospecting; global environmental change; lifetime of earth-orbiting satellites and spacecraft; and physical safety of astronauts. Identified a set of observations to specify the links coupling the earth to the sun. Recommended that these observa- tions be taken continuously to provide the data bases with which to answer the essential questions in solar-terrestrial physics and to support numerical modeling. Recommended strengthening scientific and federal agency sup- port for unproved data management centers to ensure data accessibility.

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64 Recommended a scientific body to oversee the changing science priorities and to evaluate the quality, viability, continuity, preservation, and accessi- bility of long-term solar-terrestrial data necessary for research and theory development. 15. Geophysical Data: Policy Issues, National Academy Press, Wash- ington, D.C., 1988. Concluded that geophysical data, including solar data, often collected at enormous expense, represent a national resource that must be preserved and made available, tasks for which current management policies and procedures are inadequate. Recommended adoption of specific policy guidelines by each federal agency and scientist engaged in geophysical and solar physical activities.