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9 AAH programs and state-run comprehensive litter con- The Georgia Visible Litter Study (Beck 2007a) presents a trol programs are less expensive (about $0.18 to remove or novel way to frame the roadside litter issue in the context of prevent an item of litter) but have limitations. AAH programs establishing priorities for litter reduction efforts. The concept usually cover 35% or less of state maintained highways and is to determine that road users are most likely to be exposed do not touch most rural local roads or urban city streets. to litter by considering the amount of litter on a facility and Comprehensive programs have proven effective statewide, the likelihood of someone seeing it. Determining the poten- achieving statewide reductions in litter of more than 50%. It tial for exposure to litter was calculated by accounting for can take up to 15 years of aggressive and consistently well- roadway miles, vehicle and pedestrian daily traffic, and esti- funded litter prevention campaigns for a state to realize such mated traveling speeds. The exposure-adjusted litter rates significant results. show that urban freeways and residential streets present the greatest exposure to litter. Each type of facility contributes Paid advertising programs targeting the age groups about the same exposure to litter, and together they consti- identified as primarily responsible for causing litter are the tute 53% of all exposure to roadside litter. most cost-effective approaches. They prevent littering from occurring at a cost of $0.02 per item. They are flexible and The Ohio Litter Study (Davey Resource Group 2004) provide quick results (70% reductions in litter in 6 years), attempted to determine the magnitude of biohazardous road- but they need to be adequately supported and sustained side litter, including bottles filled with unknown liquids that to achieve good results. They are not as cost-effective for appeared to be human urine, plastic bags containing mate- smaller jurisdictions with fewer than 500,000 persons (Stein rial appearing to be human feces, syringes, needles, dead and Syrek 2005). animals, and diapers. Study participants observed but did not collect any biohazardous material. All of the previously A further synthesis of visible litter studies was prepared mentioned categories of hazardous material were identified by Beck (2007b) who summarized the key findings from 12 in the survey; only the urine-filled bottles were of sufficient visible litter surveys as follows: magnitude to permit reliable estimates of statewide quanti- ties (see Table 2). Miscellaneous paper and plastics were ranked either the highest or second highest percentage of litter in five of 10 studies with these data available. BEHAVIORS AND ATTITUDES Vehicle debris and packaging accounted for a large amount of the visible litter--vehicle debris was in the To develop targeted and effective litter prevention programs, top five for seven of the 10 studies. researchers have attempted to determine who litters and why Beverage containers and related litter were ranked first they litter. Research conducted in 1968 for Keep America or second in only two studies. Beautiful, Inc. identified specific demographic variables The proportion of litter that is considered deliberate related to littering. Among the findings was that twice as appears to be decreasing over time. many males litter as females, and that adults under the age Table 2 ESTIMATE OF URINE-FILLED BOTTLE LITTER IN OHIO IN 2004 Containers per Year Mean Low High Location Rural 374,429 205,004 543,854 Interstate and U.S. Routes Urban 65,535 33,877 97,194 Rural 425,140 162,807 687,474 State Routes Urban 55,070 762 109,378 Rural 0 0 0 County Roads Urban 47,179 16,021 78,338 Rural 1,212 0 2,742 Interchanges Urban 3,807 1,090 6,523 Sum 972,372 Source: Davey Resource Group (2004).