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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2009 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS Chair: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Vice Chair: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. BARRY BARKER, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY ALLEN D. BIEHLER, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg LARRY L. BROWN, SR., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson DEBORAH H. BUTLER, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA WILLIAM A.V. CLARK, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles DAVID S. EKERN, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond NICHOLAS J. GARBER, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville JEFFREY W. HAMIEL, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN EDWARD A. (NED) HELME, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC WILL KEMPTON, Director, California DOT, Sacramento SUSAN MARTINOVICH, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City DEBRA L. MILLER, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka NEIL J. PEDERSEN, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore PETE K. RAHN, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City SANDRA ROSENBLOOM, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson TRACY L. ROSSER, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Bentonville, AR ROSA CLAUSELL ROUNTREE, Consultant, Tyrone, GA STEVE T. SCALZO, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA HENRY G. (GERRY) SCHWARTZ, JR., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO C. MICHAEL WALTON, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin LINDA S. WATSON, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando STEVE WILLIAMS, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR EX OFFICIO MEMBERS THAD ALLEN (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC REBECCA M. BREWSTER, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA GEORGE BUGLIARELLO, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC JAMES E. CAPONITI, Acting Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT CYNTHIA DOUGLASS, Acting Deputy Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT LEROY GISHI, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC EDWARD R. HAMBERGER, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC JOHN C. HORSLEY, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC ROSE A. MCMURRY, Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT RONALD MEDFORD, Acting Deputy Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT WILLIAM W. MILLAR, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC LYNNE A. OSMUS, Acting Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT JEFFREY F. PANIATI, Acting Deputy Administrator and Executive Director, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT STEVEN K. SMITH, Acting Deputy Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT JO STRANG, Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT ROBERT L. VAN ANTWERP (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC MATTHEW WELBES, Executive Director and Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT *Membership as of February 2009.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP Synthesis 394 Reducing Litter on Roadsides A Synthesis of Highway Practice Consultant GERRY J. FORBES Intus Road Safety Engineering, Inc. Milton, Ontario, Canada S ubject A reas Energy and Environment and Maintenance Research Sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in Cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2009

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP SYNTHESIS 394 Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 20-5 (Topic 39-07) approach to the solution of many problems facing highway administra- ISSN 0547-5570 tors and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local interest and ISBN 978-0-309-09840-3 can best be studied by highway departments individually or in coop- Library of Congress Control No. 2009900729 eration with their state universities and others. However, the accelerat- ing growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are 2009 Transportation Research Board best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials COPYRIGHT PERMISSION initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their manuscripts employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material the Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the used herein. Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of Trans- Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to repro- portation. duce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit pur- The Transportation Research Board of the National Research Coun- poses. Permission is given with the understanding that non of the mate- cil was requested by the Association to administer the research pro- rial will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMSCA, FTA, gram because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding or Transit development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, of modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropri- authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it ate acknowledgment of the source of any development or reproduced possesses avenues of communication and cooperation with federal, material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. state, and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of objec- NOTICE tivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National directly to those who are in a position to use them. Cooperative Highway Research Program conducted by the Transpor- The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified tation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research Board's judgment that the program concerned is of national impor- needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National tance and appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State of the National Research Council. Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies project and to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed or National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, The needs for highway research are many, and the National Coop- and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical com- erative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions mittee, they are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern Board, the National Research Council, the American Association of to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to State Highway and Transportation Officials, or the Federal Highway complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. research programs. Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the tech- nical committee according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office NOTE: The Transportation Research Board of the National Acad- 500 Fifth Street, NW emies, the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Adminis- Washington, DC 20001 tration, the American Association of State Highway and Transporta- tion Officials, and the individual states participating in the National and can be ordered through the Internet at: Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report. Printed in the United States of America