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33 FIGURE 14 Violations and penalties for littering in Georgia (Source: http://www.litteritcostsyou.org). Evaluation The DMWT program was introduced as a public educa- tion campaign, and the DMWT phrase is prominently shown The Georgia litter prevention program is in its infancy and on road signs on major highways, as well as in television, evaluations have not yet been performed. radio, and print advertisements. It is a complement to the AAH program (roadside litter collection). Interestingly, the AAH program was a Texas creation that has been adopted CASE STUDY 3: TEXAS internationally. Background Contributing to the immediate success of the DMWT program is a star-studded campaign trail that continues to Texas roadside litter prevention is spearheaded by the Texas this day. Texans such as Los Lonely Boys, The Fabulous DOT through the statewide "Don't Mess With Texas" Thunderbirds, Willie Nelson, and LeAnn Rimes publicly (DMWT) advertising campaign. The highly successful state they won't litter, and in doing so, serve as role models campaign was created by a Texas-based advertising agency for others. and launched in 1986 as a television advertisement featur- ing Stevie Ray Vaughan. The DMWT program has garnered Funding for the DMWT program is assisted by the sale national attention, including being inducted into the Madi- of official DMWT products, such as baseball hats and son Avenue Advertising Walk of Fame in 2006. T-shirts.

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34 FIGURE 15 Don't Mess With Texas advertisement (Source: http://www.dontmesswithtexas.org/view-ads-outdoor.php). The DMWT litter prevention program has a hard-hitting the 1998 survey data suggest that the top five predictors of message, and a look and feel that appeals to a younger audi- littering behavior are being young, smoking, eating fast food ence. The messages are presented using eye-catching adver- at least twice a week, driving more than 50 miles a day, and tisements (see Figure 15) and memorable phrases, such as going out to bars or other nighttime entertainment at least "Your first car was ugly, but Texas doesn't have to be," and once a week. In a follow-up survey in 2002, DMWT con- "It's take out. Not toss-out." ducted a Hispanic Attitudes and Behaviors Study to better understand and develop litter prevention programs for this Target Audience segment of the population that tends to be litter-prone. The DMWT program has used research to identify groups Strategies that are prone to littering so that targeted information and behavior-change campaigns can be developed. For example, The core of the DMWT program is an advertising campaign the 1998 Litter Attitudes and Behaviors Study classified Tex- that uses roadside billboards, television, radio, and print ans into one of five categories: mediums. The advertisements have been tailored to appeal to the target audiences identified through research and that 1. Gross Litterers--People who have personally dis- use famous Texans as spokespersons (e.g., Lance Armstrong carded significant litter in the past 3 months. and Willie Nelson). DMWT has developed Spanish-language DMWT advertising to target the Hispanic audience. 2. Micro Litterers--People who have personally dis- carded cigarette butts, food, candy wrappers, and A scholarship program for graduating high-school seniors other minor litter in the past 3 months. complements the promotional and advertising components of the DMWT program. 3. Reformed Litterers--People who have personally dis- carded major or minor litter in the past 36 months. The DMWT "Rock the Bag" outreach tour is a strategy used to motivate Texans to use a litterbag in their vehicles. 4. Tolerant Litterers--People who have not personally In 2008, the tour will make 28 stops in 16 different cities. At discarded litter, but have been with people who have, the DMWT display area, visitors can play litter trivia games, and did not condemn the behavior. watch famous DMWT television advertisements, receive free limited-edition litterbags, and win prizes. A giant inflat- 5. Non-Litterers--People who never litter. able "Rock the Bag" mascot prominently marks the DMWT area at special events. The Gross Litterer commits the most serious offense and is identified as a primary target for litter prevention educa- In 2007, the DOT released the "Litter Force Team" as a tion. Although gender is not a major predictor of littering strategy to teach elementary-age children about roadside behavior, the findings indicate that young males are more litter. The Litter Force Team is a group of four superheroes likely to be Gross Litterers (20% are Gross Litterers and 27% created to excite and inspire younger children to become litter- are Micro Litterers). Interestingly, young females are equally savvy. The Litter Force's mission is to use their special powers as likely as young males to be Micro Litterers. To that end, to protect Texas roadsides from a gang of trash villains. The