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35 villains represent the most common types of litter found on 2. Establish a central function within the Department Texas highways as recorded by Texas DOT 2005 Visible Litter of Ecology to coordinate, integrate, and strengthen Study. Online games offer different education objectives. litter prevention and pickup efforts statewide. This would include regular information-sharing sessions Evaluation with other involved agencies, local government grantees, and other interested stakeholders on The campaign is credited with reducing litter on Texas high- methods for and progress toward the zero-litter goal. ways 52% between 1995 and 2001. A subsequent evaluation in 2005, demonstrates a further 33% drop in litter. However, 3. Set an enhanced baseline for the Ecology Youth this same research indicates one in two Texans still litters. Corps pickup program to maintain progress toward Whatever the results of the DMWT program on visible lit- zero litter. ter and behaviors, it is clear that the broadcasted advertising campaign is being received--in 2005, 71% of Texans knew 4. Establish a local government funding program for what "Don't Mess With Texas" meant, compared with 62% litter control activities by cities and counties. in 2001. 5. In addition to Recommendation 4, create an addi- The DMWT program boasts other benefits in addition to tional competitive source of capital and operating the reduction in roadside litter, including renewed pride in funds for local or state agencies. Equipment pur- the state by its citizens, free public service airtime valued at chases (e.g., trucks and tools) are to receive priority $8.9 million per year, and taxpayer savings on litter pickup from this fund. costs in 2000 totaling $8.4 million. 6. Continue to support waste reduction and recycling efforts as an effective tool for preventing litter and CASE STUDY 4: WASHINGTON STATE reaching the zero litter goal. Washington State has developed a leading litter prevention 7. Establish a "rainy day account" as a contingency program with the slogan "Litter and It Will Hurt!" The pro- for litter tax fund expenditures from currently unap- gram is directed at littering on roadways and is spearheaded propriated funds. by the Department of Ecology with cooperation from the DOT and others. The campaign provides a hard-hitting mes- 8. Conduct a statewide litter survey targeted at litter sage that littering is unacceptable and harmful, and is sup- composition, sources, demographics, and geographic ported by impressive penalties that indicate littering will not trends; maintain an information base to guide preven- be tolerated. tion and pickup efforts. Background 9. Conduct a statewide litter prevention campaign in partnership with local governments and taxpay- In 1997, Washington State formed a Litter Task Force (1997) ing businesses to raise awareness of litter issues and to examine the effectiveness of litter control in Washington encourage prevention. and to make recommendations to significantly improve litter prevention and collection for the future. The 17-member task 10. Increase emphasis on the existing legal system for force was composed of representatives from litter-taxpaying littering and illegal dumping to strengthen enforce- industries and agencies that receive tax funds or are respon- ment and include a strong enforcement message in sible for some part of the litter control and recycling effort. the statewide litter prevention campaign. The Litter Task Force determined that there should be a 11. Encourage the legislature to ensure that the Depart- commitment to a standard of zero litter throughout the state ment of Revenue works toward 100% compliance in of Washington, and it pledged to work cooperatively toward litter tax collection, including consideration of min- that goal. Recommendations that were made to support the imum and maximum levels of tax liability. zero litter initiative are as follows: 12.Make a statutory change to allow corporate logos on 1. Ensure that the Department of Ecology became AAH signs to enhance the DOT's ability to attract responsible and accountable for administering state corporate sponsors for highway cleanup. agency allocations of litter tax funds, working coop- eratively with other agencies (Corrections, Natural In preparation for developing and releasing a statewide Resources, Parks, and Transportation) to develop pro- antilitter campaign, the Department of Ecology conducted a grams and monitor progress and results. statewide litter survey that included field research and litter

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36 sampling, focus groups with admitted and potential litterers, iors, including to dispose of litter properly, cover and secure and a telephone survey of the general population regarding the pickup truck loads, and clean out the back of trucks before litter problem. This study yielded invaluable information con- driving on roadways. cerning the composition of litter, who is littering and who may litter, the magnitude of the litter problem, and other informa- With the help of a team of consultants, the Department of tion necessary for developing a targeted marketing campaign. Ecology has developed a prevention strategy to reduce inten- tional littering on roadways. It is designed to reach a broad Subsequent to the completion of the litter survey, the audience to raise and maintain awareness, and to reach tar- Department of Ecology presented the results of the study geted audiences contributing to a majority of the problem. to various stakeholder groups and discussed appropriate It relies heavily on the partnership and involvement of state prevention strategies. Development of antilitter slogans and agencies, local governments, and (litter) taxpaying busi- messages to be delivered through various print, radio, and nesses. It plans for media sponsorships and includes a system television media was given the highest priority. In late Janu- to measure campaign outcomes. It reinstitutes a toll-free num- ary 2001, Washington State retained a media and public rela- ber to communicate the message that littering is not accepted tions firm to help it plan and begin implementation of a litter in Washington State and that people care enough about litter prevention campaign that would achieve the following: to report it. It includes a short-term plan to raise awareness, but it requires a long-term commitment for behavior change. Focus on litter on roadways (interstate, state, and county roads). Target Audiences Reach a broad audience to raise and maintain aware- ness over time. The two major audiences for the campaign are litterers and Reach targeted audiences engaged in intentional litter- nonlitterers. Target audiences for littering include the two ing with more specific messages. segments creating the majority of intentional litter on road- Raise awareness of the enforcement system and costs ways: (1) motorists or passengers who toss cigarette butts, for violating litter laws. alcoholic beverage containers, food wrappers, and other bev- Develop a system to measure the effectiveness of the erage containers out the window; and (2) those who drive campaign, including a link to overall tracking of litter pickup trucks and are not properly covering or securing their survey pickup results. loads, and not cleaning out the back of their pickup trucks Involve state agencies, local governments, and (litter) before driving on roadways. Campaign messages also will taxpaying businesses in both planning and implement- be aimed at those in the general public who are nonlitterers ing the campaign. traveling on Washington State roadways. The development process used a SWOT (strengths, weak- Strategies nesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis to assess internal and external influences on a proposed campaign, and exam- To create awareness, activities will focus on major promo- ined the successes from other state antilitter campaigns. tional channels used to spread the word that significant fines are associated with littering and that a toll-free number is A creative campaign sparked the most reaction by clearly available to report littering. Channels include roadway sig- conveying the message of "stiff fines and punishments" asso- nage, advertising, publicity, special events, messaging on ciated with littering. Litterers were surprised by the magni- such materials as litterbags and posters, and reminders on tude of Washington litter fines and were concerned about state agency materials. the possibility of getting caught, particularly when they were made aware of a toll-free phone number for reporting lit- To alter beliefs that littering is not noticed and that peo- tering. In light of this finding, the campaign slogan, "Litter ple do not care, additional strategies will need to be imple- and It Will Hurt," was selected as the overarching theme for mented, including letters to litterers (based on hotline calls); all communications. This slogan resonated the best with the law enforcement officials asking people during designated focus group and had the greatest longevity for a sustained litter awareness periods if they have a litterbag and remind- public education campaign. ing citizens that it is against the law to litter; ongoing pub- licity featuring stories of people who get caught littering; Campaign strategies have been designed to support three and window decals, signs, and bumper stickers providing separate objectives: (1) a short-term objective to create frequent reminders on the road. awareness that significant fines are associated with littering and that a toll-free number can be used to report littering; (2) Evaluation a long-term objective to make litterers believe their littering will be noticed and they could be caught; and (3) a long- A baseline and follow-up surveys of Washington State resi- term objective to influence litterers to change their behav- dents was conducted to measure (1) awareness of the stiff