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OCR for page 47
37 fines associated with littering and (2) awareness of the toll- Metal alcoholic beverage containers showed a free number to report littering. In addition, a repetition of the strong downward trend on all road types in winter, 1999 litter survey in 2004 was used to measure changes in but not for the year as a whole. targeted categories of roadway litter. The number of alcoholic beverage containers, as measured in Bottle Equivalents (litter was quantified Several additional important measures have been imple- by weight not item count, so bottle equivalents is the mented, including quantifiable reporting on the following: total weight collected divided by an estimated weight reach and frequency data from media, sponsorship and in- of a single bottle), showed a statistically significant kind contributions, press coverage, and participation levels decrease in winter on all road types combined, and a of other state agencies and local governments. Several of strong downward trend on all roads year-round. these measures can be combined with other campaign data The number of all beverage containers combined, as (i.e., number of signs and calls to the hotline) to create overall measured in Bottle Equivalents, exhibited a strong numbers of campaign "impressions" with target audiences. downward trend on all road types combined in winter, but not for the year as a whole. The success of the Washington "Litter and It Will Hurt" campaign can be seen in a comparison of the 1999 and 2004 Roadside Litter Surveys. Highlights include the following: SUMMARY OF LESSONS LEARNED The estimated amount of litter on Washington State These four case studies highlight several specific program roadways decreased from 8,322 tons in 1999 to 6,315 features and components that can be transferred to other tons in 2004. states and that are especially promising to advance litter The estimated amount of litter on interchanges in abatement. Overall, successful litter prevention programs Washington State decreased from 617 tons in 1999 to use a multidisciplinary approach and apply a multitude of 443 tons in 2004. strategies that are based on solid research concerning the There is a statistical significant downward trend who, what, where, and why of roadside littering. It does not in overall litter generation on county roads and on appear to be important which department leads or is admin- interchanges. istratively responsible for the campaign as long as a lead Individual components of litter showed statistically agency champions the cause of litter prevention. significant decreases between 1999 and 2004. All beverage containers combined decreased sig- The typical organizational structure for the litter preven- nificantly on both interchanges and all roadways tion program is for a state agency or department to assume combined. a lead role and to collaborate with other state departments, Glass beverage containers decreased on both inter- volunteer associations, private businesses, and so on. How- changes and all roadways combined. ever, the Florida model positions the state KAB affiliate as Construction and demolition debris on interchanges the lead agency, which in turn relies heavily on local affili- decreased significantly and showed a strong down- ates to develop and promote programs that are applicable and ward trend on all road types. appropriate to the local condition. The accumulation of tires/auto rubber products exhibited a strong downward trend on all road types, In three of the four case studies, the advertising compo- except interchanges. nents of the litter prevention campaigns are well developed The decrease in accumulation of fast food contain- and are comparable to traditional private sector commercial ers on interchanges was statistically significant, and advertising. The slogans that have been adopted in these showed a strong downward trend on all road types. jurisdictions are unapologetic, straightforward messages All alcoholic beverage containers combined and glass concerning the unacceptability of roadside littering. These alcoholic beverage containers showed a statistically slogans are the common thread through all of the litter pre- significant decrease on all road types combined. vention material.