Click for next page ( 52

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement

Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 51
41 REFERENCES AD Council, "Thirty Years after `The Crying Indian': Bullard, R., Dumping in Dixie: Race, Class and Environ- Thoughts on Development of New Littering Campaigns," mental Quality, 3rd ed., Westview Press, Boulder, Colo., presented at the Georgia Litter Summit, Atlanta, Aug. 30, 2000. 2006. Burgess, R.L., R.N. Clark, and J.C. Hendee, "An Experimen- Andres, D.L. and C.J. Andres, "Roadside Litter and Current tal Analysis of Anti-Litter Procedures," Journal of Applied Maintenance Waste Management Practices: Are We Behavior Analysis, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1971, pp. 7175. Making Any Progress?" Conference on Maintenance Caltrans, "The California Department of Transportation Lit- Management, Transportation Research Board Confer- ter Abatement Plan: A Strategic Plan of Actions Designed ence Proceedings No. 5, Transportation Research Board, to Improve California's Environment," California Depart- National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1995, pp. ment of Transportation Litter Abatement Task Force, 135143. May 2007. Baker, M.D., S.E. Moore, and P.H. Wise, "The Impact of CBC (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation), "Quebecers `Bottle Bill' Legislation on the Incidence of Lacerations May Face 20-Cent Tax on Plastic Bags," CBC News, in Childhood," American Journal of Public Health, Vol. Aug. 10, 2007 [Online]. Available: 76, No. 10, Oct. 1986, pp. 12431244. canada/montreal/story/2007/08/10/plastic-bags.html Baltes, M.M. and S.C. Hayward, "Application and Evalua- (accessed Sep. 20, 2008). tion of Strategies to Reduce Pollution: Behavioral Con- Cialdini, R.B., "Crafting Normative Messages to Protect the trol of Littering in the Football Stadium," Journal of Environment," Current Directions in Psychological Sci- Applied Psychology, Vol. 61, 1976, pp. 501506. ence, Vol. 12, 2003, pp. 105109. Beck, R.W., "Georgia 2006 Visible Litter Survey: A Base- Container Recycling Institute, "Litter Studies in Seven Bot- line Survey of Roadside Litter," conducted for Keep tle Bill States," 2007 [Online]. Available at http://www. America Beautiful and Georgia Department of Commu- / benef its /litter/7bbstates.htm nity Affairs, Atlanta, Jan. 2007a. (accessed on Sep. 12, 2008). Beck, R.W., "Literature Review--Litter: A Review of Litter Dan Jones & Associates, "UDOT Trash/Litter Survey," sur- Studies, Attitude Surveys and Other Litter-related Litera- vey conducted Dec. 26, 2007Jan. 3, 2008, Results ture," conducted for Keep America Beautiful, July unpublished. 2007b. Davey Resource Group, "Ohio Statewide Litter Study," Final Beck, R.W., "Tennessee 2006 Visible Litter Survey: Final Report, Division of Recycling & Litter Prevention, Ohio Report," conducted for Tennessee Grocers and Conve- Department of Natural Resources, Columbus, June nience Store Association, Feb. 2007c. 2004. Bitgood, S., J. Carnes, and D. Thompson, "Control of Litter- de Kort, Y.A.W., L.T. McCalley, and C.J. H. Midden, "Per- ing: A Comparison of Three Approaches," Visitor Behav- suasive Trash Cans: Activation of Littering Norms by ior, Vol. 2, No. 4, 1988, pp. 78. Design," Environment and Behavior, Vol. 40, Nov. 2008, Black, D., "Litter Lout Drivers Face Hi-Tech Crackdown," pp. 870891. The Journal, Apr. 19, 2006 [Online]. Available: http:// Dowling, E., "Don't Waste Our Roadsides: Regional Litter Campaign," Final Report, Barwon Regional Waste Man- =16963823&method=full&siteid=50081&headline= agement Group, North Greelong, Australia, Mar. 31, litter-lout-drivers-face-hi-tech-crackdown-name_page. 2005. html#story_continue (accessed Aug. 30, 2008). Durdan, C.A., G.D. Reeder, and P.R. Hecht, "Litter in a Uni- Boyce, J., "Is Inequality Bad for the Environment and Bad versity Cafeteria: Demographic Data and the Use of for Your Health?" In Different Takes, No. 8, Population Prompts as an Intervention Strategy," Environment and and Development Program, Hampshire College, Amherst, Behavior, Vol. 17, No. 3, May 1985, pp. 387404. Mass., 2001. Dwyer, W.O., F.C. Leeming, M.K. Cobern, B.E. Porter, and Bremer, S., "Review of US Litter Abatement, " Publication J.M. Jackson, "Critical Review of Behavioral Interven- No. 98-501, Solid Waste and Financial Assistance Pro- tions to Preserve the Environment: Research Since 1980," gram, Washington State Department of Ecology, Olym- Environment and Behavior, Vol. 25, No. 3, May 1993, pp. pia, 1998. 275321.

OCR for page 51
42 FESA (Fire & Emergency Services Authority of Western Literature," Environment and Behavior, Vol. 27, No. 2, Australia), "FESA Annual Report 20052006," Fire & March 1995, pp. 153183. Emergency Services Authority of Western Australia, Iowa Department of Transportation, "Adopt-A-Highway Perth, 2006 [Online]. Available: Program Dangers," Report to the State of Iowa 78th Gen- au/internet/upload/353351307/docs/fire2.pdf (accessed eral Assembly, Iowa Department of Transportation, Sep. 12, 2008). Ames, Jan. 2000. FHWA (Federal Highway Administration), "Report on the Institute for Applied Research (IAR), "Litter Trends Over Study of Highway Litter, With Recommendations," Fed- the Last Thirty Years," Report S-2.4, March 2006. eral Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., 1974 [Online]. Abstract available: Keep Wales Tidy, "Plastic Bag Litter Position Paper," July record/tris/00264303.html (accessed Sep. 13, 2008). 2006. FHWA (Federal Highway Administration), Manual on Uni- Kelling, G. and C. Coles, "Fixing Broken Windows: Restor- form Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highway, ing Order and Reducing Crime in Our Communities," American Traffic Safety Services Division, American ISBN 0-684-83738-2, 1996. Association of State Highway and Transportation Offi- Krauss, R.M., J.L. Freedman, and M. Whitcup, "Field and cials, Institute of Transportation Engineers, and Federal Laboratory Studies of Littering," Journal of Experimen- Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., 2003. tal Social Psychology, Vol. 14, 1978, pp. 109122. Finnie, W.C., "Field Experiments in Litter Control," Environ- Leistikow, B.N., D.C. Martin, and C.E. Milano, "Fire Inju- ment and Behavior, Vol. 5, No. 2, June 1973, pp. 123144. ries, Disasters, and Costs from Cigarettes and Cigarette Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management, Lights: A Global Overview," Preventive Medicine, Vol. "The Florida Litter Study: 1997," Report #S97-14, con- 31, No. 2, Aug. 2000, pp. 9199. ducted for the Florida Legislature and the Florida Depart- Liggett, R., A. Loukaitou-Sideris, and H. Iseki, "Bus Stop ment of Environmental Protection, Tallahassee, Nov. Environment Connection: Do Characteristics of the Built 1997. Environment Correlate with Bus Stop Crime?" In Trans- Florida Department of Transportation, "Traffic Engineering portation Research Record, No. 1760, Transportation Manual: Signs," Section 2.2.1: Florida Litter Law Signs, Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee, June D.C., 2001, pp. 2027. 2004. Litter Task Force, "Keeping Washington Clean--Litter Pre- Forbes, G., "The Safety Impacts of Vehicle-related Road vention and Pickup Recommendations to Washington Debris," AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, Washing- State Legislature," Publication No. 97506, Olympia, ton, D.C., June 2003. Wash., Dec. 1997. Geller, E.S., "Prompting Antilitter Behaviors," Proceedings "Meth-Lab Litter Poses Hazard for Road Crews," USA of the 81st Annual Convention of the American Psycho- Today, 2006 [Online]. Available: at http://www.usatoday. logical Association, 1973, pp. 901902. com /news /nation /2006 - 05-30 -meth-lit ter_ m (accessed Sep. 10, 2008). Geller, E.S., J.F. Witmer, and A.L. Orebaugh, "Instructions as a Determinant of Paper--disposal Behaviors," Envi- Mielke, R., "Study of Ecological Preservation (Littering ronment and Behavior, Vol. 8, 1976, pp. 417438. Behavior): Attitude, Disposition and Social Norms as Predictors of Behavior," Zeitschrift Fuer Sozialpsycholo- Geller, E.S., W. Brasted, and M. Mann, "Waste receptacle gie, Vol. 16, No. 3, 1985, pp. 196205. Designs as interventions for Litter Control," Journal of Environmental Systems, Vol. 9, 1980, pp. 145160. O'Neill, G.W., Blanck, L.S., and M.A. Joyner, "The Use of Stimulus Control Over Littering in a Natural Setting", Grasmick, H.G., R.J. Bursik, and K.A. Kinsey, "Shame and Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Vol. 13, 1980, pp. Embarrassment as Deterrents to Noncompliance with the 379-381. Law: The Case of an Antilittering Campaign," Environ- ment and Behavior, Vol. 23, No. 2, Mar. 1991, pp. Ontario Ministry of Transportation, Ontario Traffic Manual, 233251. Toronto, Canada, 2000. Haines, B., "Litter on Georgia's Roadsides," presentation Rai University, "History and Nature of Social Change Cam- made to the Governor's Litter Summit, Georgia Depart- paigns," Social Marketing Lecture Notes, 2008 [Online]. ment of Transportation, Atlanta, Aug. 2930, 2006. Available: management / bba /socialmarketing /lecture-notes / Huffman, K.T., W.F. Grossnickle, J.G. Cope, and K.P. Huff- lecture-02.pdf (accessed July 28, 2008). man, "Litter Reduction: A Review and Integration of the

OCR for page 51
43 Reich, J.W. and J.L. Robertson, "Reactance and Norm Texas Department of Transportation, "The History of Don't Appeal in anti-littering Messages," Journal of Applied Mess with Texas" [Online]. Available: http://www. Social Psychology, Vol. 9, 1979, pp. 99101. (accessed Sep. 18, 2008). Reiter, S.M. and W. Samuel, "Littering as a Function of Prior Litter and the Presence or Absence of Prohibitive Signs," Tobin Consulting Engineers, "National Litter Seminar: Final Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 10, No. 1, Summary Report," Revision 3, Tobin Consulting Engi- 1980, pp. 4555. neers, Galway, Jan. 2008 [Online]. Available: http:// Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Workshop%20Final%202007.pdf (accessed Oct. 6, "Lethal Litter," West Sussex, Britain, Oct. 9, 2007 2008). [Online]. Available: Satellite?pagename =RSPCA/Page/RSPCAArchive Torgler, B., M.A. Garcis-Valinas, and A. Macintyre, "Justifi- NewsTemplate & cid =1110904571572 & a r t icleId = ability of Littering: An Empirical Investigation," The 1182868814469 (accessed Aug. 28, 2008). Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei Note di Lavoro Series Index, 2008 [Online]. Available: Schnelle, J.F., M.P. McNees, M.M. Thomas, J.G. Grendich, Feem/Pub/Publications/WPapers/default.htm (accessed and G.P. Beagle, "Prompting Behavior Change in the July 27, 2008). Community: Use of Mass Media Techniques," Environ- ment and Behavior, Vol. 12, No. 2, June 1980, pp. Victoria Litter Action Alliance, "Litter Prevention Road 157166. Signs," Victoria, Australia, 2006. Spacek, S., "The American State Litter Scorecard: A Socio- Victoria Litter Action Alliance, "Litter Strategy: Back- political Inquiry into Littering and the Response Role of ground Paper," Victoria, Australia, n.d. [Online]. Avail- 50 American States," presented to the 2008 American able: Society for Public Administration Conference, Dallas, documents/Litter_Strategy_Background_Paper.pdf Tex., Mar. 9, 2008. (accessed Sep. 23, 2008). Stein, S.R. and D.B. Syrek, "New Jersey Litter Survey: Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, "Litter 2004--A Baseline Survey of Litter at 94 Street and High- Picks," Electronic Newsletter, Division of Environmental way Locations," performed for the New Jersey Clean Enhancement, Virginia Department of Environmental Communities Council, Trenton, Jan. 28, 2005. Quality, Richmond, Nov. 2007. Takahashi, N. "A Study of Litter Prevention at a Shopping Mall," Japanese Journal of Psychology, Vol. 67, No. 2, 1996, pp. 94101.