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44 APPENDIX A Survey Questionnaire NCHRP Project 20-5 Synthesis Topic 39-07 Reducing Litter on the Roadsides Despite the annual expenditure of millions of dollars on litter prevention and removal, roadside litter is omnipresent. Roadside litter impacts roadway aesthetics, economic development/tourism, public health and safety, and diverts Department of Transportation (DOT) funds from other activities such as maintenance, congestion mitigation, roadway reconstruction and rehabilitation, and safety improvements. This National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) synthesis project will document current practices employed by road authorities to reduce roadside litter. It is anticipated this synthesis will provide useful information for all agencies involved in roadside litter prevention and abatement. The objective of this questionnaire is to gain a better understanding of the state-of-the-practice for designing, implementing, and measuring successful strategies in roadside litter reduction, to identify best practices, and to document gaps in existing knowledge and research needs. We would appreciate your participation in this survey. This survey should be completed by the person(s) in your jurisdiction who is (are) most familiar with roadside litter abatement. All responses will be included in a final study report, including the names of the responding agencies, and the name of the primary respondent. However, personal contact information will not be shared with any one except the study team. Please return the completed questionnaire by Friday, June 6, 2008, via e-mail, fax, or postal mail to: Gerry Forbes E-mail: gerry@intus.ca Intus Road Safety Engineering Inc. Fax: 905-332-9777 2606 Bluffs Way RR 2 Milton, ON L9T 2X6 CANADA If you have questions, please contact Gerry Forbes via e-mail (gerry@intus.ca) or telephone (905-332-9470). Your participation is appreciated.

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45 PART 1: CONTACT INFORMATION 1. Name: _______________________________________________________________________ 2. Title: ________________________________________________________________________ 3. Agency: _____________________________________________________________________ 4. Address: _____________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 5. Telephone: _________________________ 6. Fax: ______________________________ 7. E-mail: ______________________________________________________________________ PART 2: SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM 8. Please provide your jurisdiction's statistical data concerning roadside littering for the three years indicated below. (Enter a number in each box or DK if you "don't know") Year 2007 2006 2005 a. How many citations were issued for littering and illegal dumping on roadways and roadsides in your jurisdiction? b. How many of the citations indicated above resulted in convictions? c. How many centreline-miles of road are under your jurisdiction? Specify: miles kilometers d. How much litter was collected from the roadways and roadsides in your jurisdiction? Specify: pounds tons kilograms tonnes cubic yards cubic metres e. What is the DOT's annual expense for litter collection on roadways and roadsides in your jurisdiction? f. What is the DOT's annual expense for disposal of litter that was collected on roadways and roadsides in your jurisdiction? g. How many workers or volunteers have been injured while collecting roadside trash (e.g., struck by vehicle, cut by broken glass, etc.)? 9. Who collects the litter from roadways and roadsides in your jurisdiction? ( Check all that apply.) DOT State police Private contractor Other agencies under contract (i.e., Conservation Corps, Division of Forestry) Volunteer groups Prison work crews Individuals conducting community service Other Specify: ____________________________________________________________________

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46 10. Has your jurisdiction completed any studies to determine the impact of roadside litter on tourism, economic development, etc.? (Check one only.) Yes Please attach studies to the completed survey. No, but at least one study is in progress No, but we are planning to do a study No, and there are no plans to conduct any studies at this time Not sure/Do not know PART 3: GENERAL 11. Which organizations and individuals (e.g., other government agencies/departments, trucking associations, beverage container manufacturers, volunteer groups, etc.) collaborate with the DOT on anti- littering efforts? (Provide a list below.) 12. Does the DOT have an anti-littering slogan? (Check one only.) Yes Specify: _______________________________________________________________________ No, but one is in development No, but we are considering one No, this is not something we are considering at this time Not sure/Do not know 13. Does the DOT have an anti-littering website? (Check one only.) Yes URL: _______________________________________________________________________ No, but one is in development No, but we are considering one No, this is not something we are considering at this time Not sure/Do not know 14. What are the sources of funding for your roadside anti-littering programs? (Provide a list below.)

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47 15a. Are you a Keep America Beautiful affiliate, or a sponsor of Pitch-In Canada? (Check one only.) Yes, Keep America Beautiful Yes, Pitch-In Canada No Not sure/Do not know 15b. Are you a member or affiliate of any other national anti-littering organization? (Check one only.) Yes Specify: _______________________________________________________________________ No Not sure/Do not know PART 4: LEGISLATION 16. What is your jurisdiction's definition of "littering"? 17. In your jurisdiction, is littering a civil or criminal offence? (Check one only.) Civil offence only Criminal offence only Both civil and criminal offence Not sure/Do not know 18. In your jurisdiction, is littering a strict liability offence1? (Check one only.) Yes No, but we are in the process of adopting this legislation No, but we are considering this legislation No, this is not something we are considering at this time Not sure/Do not know 1 Strict liability, also known as absolute liability, is liability without regard to fault or negligence. Strict liability as it applies to littering means that under the law the sole question is whether littering occurred there is no relief from guilt/liability by arguing the littering was unintentional or the littering could not have been prevented by exercising reasonable care.

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48 19. Does your jurisdiction have presumptive evidentiary rules, where the offender can be inferred from specific indications of ownership found in the litter (e.g., a piece of correspondence with a name and address), or where the owner of a vehicle is deemed to be the offender if litter is seen being discharged from an identified moving vehicle? (Check one only.) Yes Specify: _____________________________________________________________________ No, but we are in the process of adopting these rules No, but these rules are under consideration No, this is not something we are considering at this time Not sure/Do not know 20a. In your jurisdiction, what are the penalties for roadside littering? (Check all that apply.) Monetary fine Demerit points on drivers license Imprisonment Forfeiture of motor vehicle used in littering Community service Revoke or suspend vehicle registration until littering violation is resolved Restitution or restitution costs Publish names of offenders Other Specify: _______________________________________________________ 20b. Please provide details (e.g., amounts or times) for each applicable penalty cited in Question 20a. 21. Does your jurisdiction have a special docket or environment court to facilitate the processing of littering citations? (Check one only.) Yes No, but one is being developed No, but one is under consideration No, this is not something we are considering at this time Not sure/Do not know

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49 22. Does your jurisdiction have any of the following litter taxes? (Check one per row.) do not know Considering developed Not sure/ Being Yes No a. Beverage container deposit/refund legislation (i.e., "Bottle bill") b. Tax on litter-generating industries (Specify which ones): ___________________________________________________ c. Tax on "hard-to-dispose-of" materials and products (Specify which ones): ___________________________________________________ d. Other (Specify): ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 23. Does your jurisdiction have any other legislation regarding littering and anti-littering that applies to roadside littering? (Check one only.) Yes Specify: ___________________________________________________________________ No, but legislation is being developed No, but legislation is under consideration No, this is not something we are considering at this time Not sure/Do not know PART 5: ENFORCEMENT 24. Who is responsible for enforcing the litter laws on your jurisdictions roads? (Check all that apply.) State/Provincial police Local police Designated State officials Specify:______________________________________________________ Other Specify:______________________________________________________________________ 25. On average, how often does your jurisdiction carry out enforcement campaigns that are specific to littering or illegal dumping at the roadside? (Check one only.) Never Less than once a year Once a year Twice a year Three times a year More than three times a year

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50 26. Does your jurisdiction's litter law permit enforcement personnel to arrest offenders without a warrant? (Check one only.) Yes Specify circumstances: ___________________________________________________________ No, but this is being developed No, but this is under consideration No, this is not something we are considering at this time Not sure/Do not know 27. Does your jurisdiction provide regular targeted enforcement for any of the following? (Check all that apply.) Specific vehicle types (e.g., waste haulers, pick-up trucks, etc.) Specific litter "hot spots" (e.g., rest areas, routes to landfills, etc.) Other Specify:____________________________________________________________________ 28. Does your jurisdiction have a "litter hotline" where citizens can report roadside littering? (Check one only.) Yes No, but this is being developed No, but this is under consideration No, this is not something we are considering at this time Not sure/Do not know 29. Does your jurisdiction have a reward/incentive program to encourage citizens to report roadside littering? (Check one only.) Yes Specify: __________________________________________________________ No, but this is being developed No, but this is under consideration No, this is not something we are considering at this time Not sure/Do not know PART 6: EDUCATION AND ENCOURAGEMENT ACTIVITIES 30. Does the DOT provide litter/trash receptacles on the roadsides? (Check one only.) Yes Which locations (e.g., freeway off-ramps)?____________________________________________ No, but this program is being developed No, but this program is under consideration No, this is not something we are considering at this time Not sure/Do not know

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51 31. Does the DOT use a litter/trash receptacle that has been enhanced or embellished (e.g., painted a distinctive colour, or made in a distinctive shape)? (Check one only.) Yes Specify: _____________________________________________________________________ No, but one is being developed No, but one is under consideration No, this is not something we are considering at this time Not sure/Do not know 32. Is there a policy or law governing how often the receptacles are to be emptied? (Check one only.) Yes Specify: _____________________________________________________________________ No, but one is being developed No, but one is under consideration No, this is not something we are considering at this time Not sure/Do not know 33. Does the DOT use any of the following products to reduce roadside litter? (Check one per row.) do not know Considering developed Not sure/ Being Yes No a. State/Provincial litter bags b. Pledge cards c. Posters d. Educational videos e. Colouring books f. Bumper stickers g. Billboards h. Lapel pins i. Other promotional items Specify: _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________

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52 34. Does the DOT employ any of the following mediums to advertise roadside litter laws and/or programs? (Check one per row.) Do not know Considering developed Not sure/ Being Yes No a. Public service announcements on television b. Public service announcements on radio c. Newspaper and/or magazine advertisements d. Advertisements on websites other than State/Provincial DOT e. Billboards f. Roadside signs concerning littering fines g. Direct mail of flyers or brochures h. Including litter law information on State/Provincial forms (i.e., motor vehicle registration or driver license renewals) i. Other mediums Specify: _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ 35. To which groups does the DOT direct anti-littering educational and encouragement programs/ campaigns? (Check one per row) Do not know Considering developed Not sure/ Being Yes No a. Elementary school children b. High school students c. College and/or University students d. Trucking associations e. Waste haulers f. Others Specify: _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ 36. Does the DOT offer anti-littering scholarships or grants to individuals or groups? (Check one only) Yes Please attach details to the completed survey No, but these are being developed No, but these are under consideration No, we are not considering these at this time Not sure/Do not know

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53 37. Does the DOT have an awards program or similar program to recognize significant contributions to roadside litter reduction? (Check one only.) Yes Please attach details to the completed survey No, but this is being developed No, but this is under consideration No, this is not something we are considering at this time Not sure/Do not know 38. Does the DOT have "cover your load" or spill prevention measures in place for private vehicle owners? (Check one only.) Yes Please attach details to the completed survey No, but these are being developed No, but these are under consideration No, we are considering these at this time Not sure/Do not know 39. Do landfills and transfer stations have the ability to refuse loads that are not properly covered or secured? (Check one only.) Yes No, but this is being developed No, but this is under consideration No, this is not something we are considering at this time Not sure/Do not know 40. Which of the following programs are employed in your jurisdiction for roadside litter collection? (Check one per row.) Do not know Considering developed Not sure/ Being Yes No a. Adopt-a-Highway b. Sponsor-a-Highway c. Assign-a-Highway d. Prison work crews e. Youth offenders f. Community service g. Other Specify: ________________________________________

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54 41. Does the DOT (or a contractor) routinely collect roadside litter prior to conducting roadside mowing? (Check one only.) Yes No, but this is being developed No, but this is under consideration No, this is not something we are considering at this time Not sure/Do not know 42. Based on your experience and/or local research, which anti-litter practices are most successful at reducing roadside litter? 43. In your opinion, what are the key elements of a successful roadside anti-littering program? PART 7: PERFORMANCE MEASURES 44. How often does your jurisdiction conduct a roadside litter survey? (Check one only.) Twice per year or more frequently Once a year Once every two years Once every three years Less frequently than once every three years Never Not sure/do not know

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55 45. How often does your jurisdiction conduct behaviours and/or attitudes surveys concerning roadside littering? (Check one only.) Once a year or more frequently Once every two years Once every three years Less frequently than once every three years Never Not sure/do not know 46. Other than through roadside litter surveys and/or attitudes surveys, has your jurisdiction ever measured the effectiveness of any of your anti-littering programs? (Check one only.) Yes Please attach details and results to the completed survey No, but this is being developed No, but this is under consideration No, this is not something we are considering at this time Not sure/Do not know END OF QUESTIONNAIRE Please return the completed questionnaire by Friday, June 6, 2008 via e-mail, fax, or postal mail to: Gerry Forbes E-mail: gerry@intus.ca Intus Road Safety Engineering Inc. Fax: 905-332-9777 RR 2 2606 Bluffs Way Milton, ON L9T 2X6 CANADA Thank you for your participation!