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NCHRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT 20-5 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CRAWFORD F. JENCKS, Deputy Director, Cooperative CHAIR Research Programs NANDA SRINIVASAN, Senior Program Officer CATHERINE NELSON, Oregon DOT EILEEN DELANEY, Director of Publications NCHRP SYNTHESIS STAFF MEMBERS STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and Special KATHLEEN S. AMES, Illinois DOT Programs STUART D. ANDERSON, Texas A&M University JON M. WILLIAMS, Program Director, IDEA and Synthesis CYNTHIA J. BURBANK, PB Americas, Inc. Studies LISA FREESE, Scoot County (MN) Public Works Division GAIL STABA, Senior Program Officer MALCOLM T. KERLEY, Virginia DOT DONNA L. VLASAK, Senior Program Officer RICHARD D. LAND, California DOT DON TIPPMAN, Editor JAMES W. MARCH, Federal Highway Administration CHERYL KEITH, Senior Program Assistant MARK A. MAREK, Texas DOT JOHN M. MASON, JR., Auburn University ANANTH PRASAD, HNTB Corporation TOPIC PANEL ROBERT L. SACK, New York State DOT TERRI BEBO, California Department of Transportation FRANCINE SHAW-WHITSON, Federal Highway RICHARD A. EBELING, Bureau of Maintenance & Administration Operations, Pennsylvania Department of Transportation LARRY VELASQUEZ, New Mexico DOT BRENDA FLORES-DOLLAR, Texas Department of Transportation TRACY D. LARKIN-THOMASON, Nevada Department of Transportation FHWA LIAISON STEPHEN LINER, Florida Department of Transportation WILLIAM ZACCAGNINO FRANK N. LISLE, Transportation Research Board BECKY LYONS, Keep America Beautiful, Inc. WILLIAM W. WITT, University of Kentucky KEVIN MOODY, Federal Highway Administration (Liaison) TRB LIAISON CHARLES E. MEYER, American Association of State Highway STEPHEN F. MAHER and Transportation Officials (Liaison)