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56 APPENDIX B Survey Responses PART 1: CONTACT INFORMATION Agencies that responded to the survey: United States Canada Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Manitoba Infrastructure and Transportation Facilities Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Transportation & Works Arizona Department of Transportation Ontario Ministry of Transportation California Department of Transportation Prince Edward Island Department of Transportation and Public Works Connecticut Department of Transportation Quebec Ministere des Transport Delaware Department of Transportation Saskatchewan Highways Florida Department of Transportation Yukon Territories Department of Highways and Public Works Indiana Department of Transportation Iowa Department of Transportation Kansas Department of Transportation Kentucky Transportation Cabinet Louisiana Department of Transportation Maryland State Highway Administration Michigan Department of Transportation Minnesota Department of Transportation Mississippi Department of Transportation Missouri Department of Transportation Montana Department of Transportation Nevada Department of Transportation New Hampshire Department of Transportation New Mexico Department of Transportation Ohio Department of Transportation Oregon Department of Transportation Pennsylvania Department of Transportation Tennessee Department of Transportation Texas Department of Transportation Utah Department of Transportation Vermont Agency of Transportation Virginia Department of Transportation Washington State Department of Ecology Wisconsin Department of Transportation Wyoming Department of Transportation

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57 PART 2: SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM 8. Please provide your jurisdiction's statistical data concerning roadside littering for the three years indicated below. Year 2007 2006 2005 a. How many citations were issued for littering Range: Range: Range: and illegal dumping on roadways and 1 to 1,746 0 to 9,655 0 to 10,294 roadsides in your jurisdiction? Avg: Avg: Avg: (N = 7 for 2007, N = 9 for 2006, N = 8 for 418 1,857 2,067 2005) b. How many of the citations indicated above Range: Range: Range: resulted in convictions? 1 to 1,519 0 to 1,603 0 to 1,097 (N = 5 for 2007, N = 5 for 2006, N =5 for Avg: Avg: Avg: 2005) 320 338 234 c. How many centreline-miles of road are under Range: Range: Range: your jurisdiction? 1,366 to 148,216 1,366 to 57,483 1,366 to 57,867 (N = 34 for 2007, N = 29 for 2006, N = 29 for Avg: 20,512 Avg: Avg: 14,050 2005) 14,012 d. How much litter was collected from the Responses varied Responses Responses varied roadways and roadsides in your jurisdiction? in reporting varied in in reporting (N = 18 for 2007, N = 16 for 2006, N = 16 for number of bags, reporting number of bags, 2005) pounds, cubic number of bags, pounds, cubic yards, etc. pounds, cubic yards, etc. yards, etc. e. What is the DOT's annual expense for litter Range: Range: Range: collection on roadways and roadsides in your $35,000 to $30,000 to $30,000 to jurisdiction? $62,000,000 $55,000,000 $42,000,000 (N = 26 for 2007, N = 25 for 2006, N = 23 for Avg: $6,048,841 Avg: Avg: 2005) $5,841,701 $5,143,111 f. What is the DOT's annual expense for Range: Range: Range: disposal of litter that was collected on $5,000 to $5,000 to $5,000 to roadways and roadsides in your jurisdiction? $400,000 $400,000 $335,410 (N = 6 for 2007, N = 5 for 2006, N = 5 for Avg: Avg: Avg: 2005) $159,695 $221,192 $215,922 g. How many workers or volunteers have been Range: 0 to 2 Range: 0 to 6 Range: 0 to 4 injured while collecting roadside trash (e.g., struck by vehicle, cut by broken glass, etc.)? (N = 8 for 2007, N = 7 for 2006, N = 7 for 2005) There is no standardized manner in which roadside litter is counted/measured. DOTs reported the quantity of litter collected by weight, volume, area, truckloads, and bags. Numerous respondents indicated that the cost of litter disposal is not separated from the cost of litter collection, and was included in the cost reported in 8e. One of the respondents indicated that the expense for the disposal of litter is "waived". Another respondent provided a cost of $17/kilometre ($27/mile). The majority of respondents did not report or did not know the number of injuries sustained by workers or volunteers collecting roadside trash.

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58 9. Who collects the litter from roadways and roadsides in your jurisdiction? N = 39 Number of Responses Percentage DOT 35 90 State police 4 10 Private contractor 18 46 Other agencies under contract (i.e., 10 26 Conservation Corps, Division of Forestry) Volunteer groups 36 92 Prison work crews 25 64 Individuals conducting community 23 59 service Other 7 18 10. Has your jurisdiction completed any studies to determine the impact of roadside litter on tourism, economic development, etc.? N = 39 Percentage Of All Excl. DK Number of Responses (N = 39) (N = 35) Yes 7 18 20 No, but at least one study is in 1 3 3 progress No, but we are planning to do a study 1 3 3 No, and there are no plans to conduct 26 67 74 any studies at this time Not sure/Do not know 4 10 -- PART 3: GENERAL 11. Which organizations and individuals (e.g., other government agencies/departments, trucking associations, beverage container manufacturers, volunteer groups, etc.) collaborate with the DOT on anti-littering efforts?

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59 12. Does the DOT have an anti-littering slogan? N = 39 Percentage Of All Excl. DK Number of Responses (N = 39) (N = 37) Yes 19 49 51 No, but one is in development 0 0 0 No, but we are considering one 3 8 8 No, this is not something we are 16 41 43 considering at this time Not sure/Do not know 2 5 -- AZ: Don't Trash AZ! CA: Don't Trash California DE: Keep Delaware Beautiful. Don't Be A Litterbug KY: Adopt-A-Highway...Make It Yours MN: Don't Waste Our State Maryland: Keep Maryland Beautiful MO: No More Trash! MS: Pick It Up Mississippi, I'm Not Your Mama NM: Toss No Mas and Don't Trash NM OH: A Scenic View Depends on You OR: TN: Stop Litter: Tennessee's Had Enough TX: Don't Mess With Texas UT: Litter Hurts! VA: Littering Is Illegal VT: Green Up WA: Litter And It Will Hurt WY: Wyoming's View Is Up To You PE: Keep The Island Clean! Put Litter In Its Place 13. Does the DOT have an anti-littering website? N = 39 Percentage Of All Excl. DK Number of Responses (N = 39) (N = 39) Yes 23 59 59 No, but one is in development 0 0 0 No, but we are considering one 2 5 5 No, this is not something we are 14 36 36 considering at this time Not sure/Do not know 0 0 -- 14. What are the sources of funding for your roadside anti-littering programs?

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60 15a. Are you a Keep America Beautiful affiliate, or a sponsor of Pitch-In Canada? N = 39 Percentage Of All Excl. DK Number of Responses (N = 39) (N = 34) Yes, Keep America Beautiful 11 28 32 Yes, Pitch-In Canada 1 3 3 No 22 56 65 Not sure/Do not know 5 13 --- 15b. Are you a member or affiliate of any other national anti-littering organization? N = 39 Percentage Of All Excl. DK Number of Responses (N = 39) (N =3 5) Yes 14 36 40 No 21 54 60 Not sure/Do not know 4 10 -- The national anti-littering organization most often cited was International Adopt-A-Highway Several of the "Yes" responses were for participation in the "Keep Beautiful" affiliates of KAB. PART 4: LEGISLATION 16. What is your jurisdiction's definition of "littering"? 17. In your jurisdiction, is littering a civil or criminal offence? N = 39 Percentage Of All Excl. DK Number of Responses (N = 39) (N = 31) Civil offence only 13 33 42 Criminal offence only 6 15 19 Both civil and criminal offence 12 31 39 Not sure/Do not know 8 21 -- 18. In your jurisdiction, is littering a strict liability offence? N = 39 Percentage Of All Excl. DK Number of Responses (N = 39) (N = 18) Yes 12 31 67 No, but we are in the process of 0 0 0 adopting this legislation No, but we are considering this 0 0 0 legislation No, this is not something we are 6 15 33 considering at this time Not sure/Do not know 21 54 --

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61 19. Does your jurisdiction have presumptive evidentiary rules, where the offender can be inferred from specific indications of ownership found in the litter (e.g., a piece of correspondence with a name and address), or where the owner of a vehicle is deemed to be the offender if litter is seen being discharged from an identified moving vehicle? N = 39 Percentage Of All Excl. DK Number of Responses (N = 39) (N = 22) Yes 15 39 68 No, but we are in the process of 0 0 0 adopting these rules No, but these rules are under 1 3 5 consideration No, this is not something we are 6 15 27 considering at this time Not sure/Do not know 17 44 -- 20a. In your jurisdiction, what are the penalties for roadside littering? (Check all that apply.) N = 37 Penalty No. of Responses Percentage Monetary fine 37 100 Imprisonment 10 27 Community service 17 46 Restitution or restitution costs 10 27 Demerit points on drivers license 5 14 Forfeiture of motor vehicle used in 1 3 littering Revoke or suspend vehicle 4 11 registration until littering violation is resolved Publish names of offenders 1 3 Other 1 3 20b. Please provide details (e.g., amounts or times) for each applicable penalty cited in Question 20a. 21. Does your jurisdiction have a special docket or environment court to facilitate the processing of littering citations? (Check one only.) N = 39 Percentage Of All Excl. DK Number of Responses (N = 39) (N = 24) Yes 6 15 25 No, but one is being developed 0 0 0 No, but one is under consideration 2 5 8 No, this is not something we are 16 41 67 considering at this time Not sure/Do not know 15 38 --

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62 22. Does your jurisdiction have any of the following litter taxes? (Check one per row) do not know Considering developed Not sure/ Being Yes No a. Beverage container deposit/refund legislation (i.e., "Bottle bill") 12 0 1 21 3 (N = 37) b. Tax on litter-generating industries (N = 37) 3 0 1 23 10 c. Tax on "hard-to-dispose-of" materials and products (N = 37) 9 0 0 21 7 d. Other (N = 33) 1 Indiana indicates that there is an extra fee to dispose of tires. 23. Does your jurisdiction have any other legislation regarding littering and anti-littering that applies to roadside littering? N = 39 Percentage Of All Excl. DK Number of Responses (N = 39) (N = 25) Yes 12 31 48 No, but legislation is being developed 1 3 4 No, but legislation is under 0 0 0 consideration No, this is not something we are 12 31 48 considering at this time Not sure/Do not know 14 36 -- PART 5: ENFORCEMENT 24. Who is responsible for enforcing the litter laws on your jurisdictions roads? N = 38 Number of Responses Percentage State/Provincial police 36 95 Local police 30 79 Designated State officials 6 16 Other 2 5 The designated state officials that were specified in responses include Wardens from the Department of Natural Resources, Conservation Officers, and Environment and Fisheries Officers. The Other enforcement included the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the County Sheriff, and local law enforcement personnel. 25. On average, how often does your jurisdiction carry out enforcement campaigns that are specific to littering or illegal dumping at the roadside? N = 37 Number of Responses Percentage Never 24 65 Less than once a year 4 11 Once a year 4 11 Twice a year 3 8 Three times a year 1 3 More than three times a year 1 3

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63 26. Does your jurisdiction's litter law permit enforcement personnel to arrest offenders without a warrant? N = 39 Percentage Of All Excl. DK Number of Responses (N = 39) (N = 18) Yes 12 31 67 No, but this is being developed 0 0 0 No, but this is under consideration 0 0 0 No, this is not something we are 6 15 33 considering at this time Not sure/Do not know 21 54 -- 27. Does your jurisdiction provide regular targeted enforcement for any of the following? N = 38 Number of Responses Percentage Specific vehicle types (e.g., waste 11 29 haulers, pick-up trucks, etc.) Specific litter "hot spots" (e.g., rest 9 24 areas, routes to landfills, etc.) Other 3 8 All three "Other" responses referred to litter "hot spots" and varied only in the group that identified the litter-prone areas (i.e., Department of Fisheries, maintenance personnel working with the police, and local agencies). 28. Does your jurisdiction have a "litter hotline" where citizens can report roadside littering? N = 39 Percentage Of All Excl. DK Number of Responses (N = 39) (N = 35) Yes 16 41 46 No, but this is being developed 0 0 0 No, but this is under consideration 1 3 3 No, this is not something we are 18 46 51 considering at this time Not sure/Do not know 4 10 -- 29. Does your jurisdiction have a reward/incentive program to encourage citizens to report roadside littering? N = 39 Percentage Of All Excl. DK Number of Responses (N = 39) (N = 34) Yes 6 15 18 No, but this is being developed 0 0 0 No, but this is under consideration 2 5 6 No, this is not something we are 26 67 76 considering at this time Not sure/Do not know 5 13 --

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64 PART 6: EDUCATION AND ENCOURAGEMENT ACTIVITIES 30. Does the DOT provide litter/trash receptacles on the roadsides? N = 39 Percentage Of All Excl. DK Number of Responses (N = 39) (N = 37) Yes 28 72 76 No, but this program is being 0 0 0 developed No, but this program is under 0 0 0 consideration No, this is not something we are 9 23 24 considering at this time Not sure/Do not know 2 5 -- The receptacles are located at rest stops, freeway off-ramps, truck parking areas, welcome centers, waiting areas, car pool lots, ferry areas, waysides and pullouts, vista/scenic lookout areas, and picnic areas. 31. Does the DOT use a litter/trash receptacle that has been enhanced or embellished (e.g., painted a distinctive colour, or made in a distinctive shape)? N = 39 Percentage Of All Excl. DK Number of Responses (N = 39) (N = 37) Yes 9 23 24 No, but one is being developed 1 3 3 No, but one is under consideration 0 0 0 No, this is not something we are 27 69 73 considering at this time Not sure/Do not know 2 5 -- The enhancements that were mentioned by respondents were: x Bear-proof containers x Concrete with exposed aggregate surfaces to match the attractive setting and visitor buildings x Contain the DOT Workers' memorial bear an image of the profiles featured in the memorial. x Colored blue x Blue bins with the international recycle symbol stickers in the mini-recycle centers located in waysides and rest areas 32. Is there a policy or law governing how often the receptacles are to be emptied? N = 38 Percentage Of All Excl. DK Number of Responses (N = 38) (N = 34) Yes 11 29 32 No, but one is being developed 0 0 0 No, but one is under consideration 0 0 0 No, this is not something we are 23 61 68 considering at this time Not sure/Do not know 4 11 -- The schedule for emptying roadside trash receptacles included: x Emptied daily or at least daily. x Maintenance requirements for "no overflowing trash receptacles" or "empty as often as necessary" x Depending on the site from twice a week to four times a day.

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65 33. Does the DOT use any of the following products to reduce roadside litter? do not know Considering developed Not sure/ Being Yes No a. State/Provincial litter bags (N = 36) 17 16 0 2 1 b. Pledge cards (N = 36) 7 28 0 1 0 c. Posters (N = 37) 18 18 0 0 1 d. Educational videos (N = 36) 11 22 0 1 2 e. Coloring books (N = 36) 8 24 0 0 4 f. Bumper stickers (N = 36) 11 22 0 0 3 g. Billboards (N = 37) 12 24 0 1 0 h. Lapel pins (N =36) 4 30 0 0 2 i. Other promotional items 8 Other promotional items mentioned were key chains, pens, pencils, rulers, clips, tattoos, notepads, and magnets. 34. Does the DOT employ any of the following mediums to advertise roadside litter laws and/or programs? Do not know Considering developed Not sure/ Being Yes No a. Public service announcements on television (N = 38) 14 23 0 0 1 b. Public service announcements on radio (N = 38) 16 21 0 0 1 c. Newspaper and/or magazine advertisements (N = 35) 8 26 0 0 1 d. Advertisements on websites other than State/Provincial DOT 10 25 0 0 2 (N = 37) e. Billboards (N = 36) 11 24 0 1 0 f. Roadside signs concerning littering fines (N = 38) 32 6 0 0 0 g. Direct mail of flyers or brochures (N = 36) 6 27 1 0 2 h. Including litter law information on State/Provincial forms (i.e., 2 28 0 3 3 motor vehicle registration or driver license renewals) (N =36) i. Other mediums Other mediums state fair trash cans, dynamic message signs.

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66 35. To which groups does the DOT direct anti-littering educational and encouragement programs/ campaigns? Do not know Considering developed Not sure/ Being Yes No a. Elementary school children (N = 34) 14 18 0 1 1 b. High school students (N = 33) 12 19 0 0 2 c. College and/or University students (N = 33) 8 22 0 0 3 d. Trucking associations (N = 34) 2 28 0 1 3 e. Waste haulers (N = 35) 5 26 0 1 3 f. Others 36. Does the DOT offer anti-littering scholarships or grants to individuals or groups? N = 39 Percentage Of All Excl. DK Number of Responses (N = 39) (N = 36) Yes 4 10 11 No, but these are being developed 0 0 0 No, but these are under consideration 0 0 0 No, we are not considering these at 32 82 89 this time Not sure/Do not know 3 8 -- 37. Does the DOT have an awards program or similar program to recognize significant contributions to roadside litter reduction? N = 39 Percentage Of All Excl. DK Number of Responses (N = 39) (N = 35) Yes 8 21 23 No, but this is being developed 1 3 3 No, but this is under consideration 0 0 0 No, this is not something we are 26 67 74 considering at this time Not sure/Do not know 4 10 -- 38. Does the DOT have "cover your load" or spill prevention measures in place for private vehicle owners? N = 39 Percentage Of All Excl. DK Number of Responses (N =39) (N = 33) Yes 19 49 58 No, but these are being developed 1 3 3 No, but these are under consideration 2 5 6 No, we are considering these at this time 11 28 33 Not sure/Do not know 6 15 --

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67 39. Do landfills and transfer stations have the ability to refuse loads that are not properly covered or secured? N = 39 Percentage Of All Excl. DK Number of Responses (N =39) (N = 21) Yes 16 41 76 No, but this is being developed 0 0 0 No, but this is under consideration 0 0 0 No, this is not something we are 5 13 24 considering at this time Not sure/Do not know 18 46 -- 40. Which of the following programs are employed in your jurisdiction for roadside litter collection? Do not know Considering developed Not sure/ Being Yes No a. Adopt-a-Highway (N = 38) 34 4 0 0 0 b. Sponsor-a-Highway (N = 33) 13 18 2 0 0 c. Assign-a-Highway (N = 31) 3 27 0 0 1 d. Prison work crews (N = 36) 26 9 0 0 1 e. Youth offenders (N = 34) 9 21 0 0 4 f. Community service (N = 35) 23 10 0 0 2 g. Other 3 41. Does the DOT (or a contractor) routinely collect roadside litter prior to conducting roadside mowing? N = 39 Percentage Of All Excl. DK Number of Responses (N = 39) (N = 35) Yes 26 67 74 No, but this is being developed 0 0 0 No, but this is under consideration 0 0 0 No, this is not something we are 9 23 26 considering at this time Not sure/Do not know 4 10 -- 42. Based on your experience and/or local research, which anti-litter practices are most successful at reducing roadside litter? 43. In your opinion, what are the key elements of a successful roadside anti-littering program?

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68 PART 7: PERFORMANCE MEASURES 44. How often does your jurisdiction conduct a roadside litter survey? N = 39 Percentage Of All Excl. DK Number of Responses (N = 39) (N = 38) Twice per year or more frequently 4 10 11 Once a year 9 23 24 Once every two years 0 0 0 Once every three years 3 8 8 Less frequently than once every three 6 15 16 years Never 14 36 37 Not sure/do not know 1 3 -- 45. How often does your jurisdiction conduct behaviors and/or attitudes surveys concerning roadside littering? N = 39 Percentage Of All Excl. DK Number of Responses (N = 39) (N = 36) Once a year or more frequently 7 18 19 Once every two years 3 8 8 Once every three years 0 0 0 Less frequently than once every 8 21 22 three years Never 20 51 56 Not sure/do not know 3 8 -- 46. Other than through roadside litter surveys and/or attitudes surveys, has your jurisdiction ever measured the effectiveness of any of your anti-littering programs? N = 39 Percentage Of All Excl. DK Number of Responses (N = 39) (N = 30) Yes 7 18 23 No, but this is being developed 0 0 0 No, but this is under consideration 5 13 17 No, this is not something we are 18 46 60 considering at this time Not sure/Do not know 9 23 --