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FOREWORD Highway administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which infor- mation already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and prac- tice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviat- ing the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to highway administrators and engi- neers. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the entire highway community, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials--through the mechanism of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program--authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing study. This study, NCHRP Project 20-5, "Synthesis of Infor- mation Related to Highway Problems," searches out and synthesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an NCHRP report series, Synthesis of Highway Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. PREFACE This synthesis reports on the state of the practice in reducing roadside litter as it involves By Donna Vlasak state departments of transportation (DOTs). The report provides information concerning the prevention and removal of roadside litter, unfulfilled needs, knowledge gaps, and under- Senior Program Officer performing activities. It covers enforcement, education, awareness, and engineering meth- Transportation ods for both litter prevention and collection. The synthesis focuses on state DOT personnel Research Board involved in roadside litter prevention and their contractors who conduct litter prevention and removal programs. Also, as roadside litter prevention appears to be a multiple stakeholder activity, policy makers and practitioners from other government agencies and environmental organizations, as well as groups and volunteers may be interested in this synthesis. A 46-question survey was distributed to maintenance personnel in all 50 U.S. states, Puerto Rico, and 10 Canadian provinces. A literature search was also undertaken. Together, the North American survey and the literature review provide a comprehensive snapshot of the state of the practice in roadside litter abatement. Four case studies were undertaken highlighting DOT litter prevention programs considered leaders in the field. Gerry J. Forbes, Intus Road Safety Engineering, Milton, Ontario, Canada, collected and synthesized the information and wrote the report. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on the preceding page. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand.

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